Understanding the spatial distribution of free-floating carsharing in cities: Analysis of the new Madrid experience through a web-based platform
درک توزیع مکانی اتومبیل های شناور آزاد در شهرها: تجزیه و تحلیل تجربه جدید مادرید از طریق یک بستر مبتنی بر وب-2020
In recent years the sharing economy has become established in different modes in the urban transport system, and claims to be reducing the number of cars and contributing to lower traffic pollution. Free-floating carsharing (FFCS) is a new and more flexible type of carsharing that is driving the growth of carsharing markets around the world. While there is a very extensive literature on traditional carsharing, more research needs to be done on the new FFCS trip profile in order to estimate its spillover effects on the urban transportation system. As FFCS systems are based on ICTs, new web-based methodologies (instead of traditional surveys) are the best approach to analyse them. This paper contributes to the existing literature with a spatial evaluation of the FFCS trip profile, obtaining a temporal distribution of the main flows throughout the FFCS service area. The added value of this research is that it provides the first spatial analysis of a FFCS system in Spain using rental data collected from the operators websites. The results clearly show the prevalence of the short-distance FFCS trip that is faster than available public transport and whose origin and destination are closely dependent on parking availability.
Coworking spaces_ Empowerment for entrepreneurship and innovation in the digital and sharing economy
فضاهای همکار: توانمندسازی برای کارآفرینی و نوآوری در اقتصاد دیجیتال و اشتراک-2020
Freelancers, entrepreneurs, new ventures, but also incumbent firms increasingly use coworking spaces (CWS). The alignment of work-space and social space can facilitate organizational empowerment supporting individual work satisfaction. Our mixed-methods study of 328 respondents from CWS in 26 cities in the USA, Germany, and China identifies configurations of institutional patterns on work satisfaction associated with a sense of com- munity, autonomy, participation, linkage multiplicity and mutual knowledge creation. High work satisfaction can occur in three different configurations related to a) agility housing, b) knowledge housing, and c) social housing. Our findings contribute to how incumbent firms and CWS can influence work satisfaction and empower towards innovation and entrepreneurial performance.
Keywords: Coworking spaces | Empowerment | Innovation | Entrepreneurial performance | FsQCA | NCA | Mixed methods
Do hybrids impede sustainability? How semantic reorientations and governance reforms can produce and preserve sustainability in sharing business models
آیا هیبریدها مانع پایداری می شوند؟ اصلاح مجدد معنایی و اصلاحات حکومتی چگونه می توانند پایداری را در به اشتراک گذاری مدل های تجاری ایجاد و حفظ کنند-2020
The sharing economy is a hotbed of hybridity and sustainability owing to the reduction in transactions costs that create information, trust, and trade. However, the hybridization also challenges the sustainability of sharing business models, a tension often criticized but rarely addressed. This paper identiﬁes and solves three challenges of hybridization. First, we show that there is no deterministic link between organizational missions and sustainability outcomes. This means that not-for-proﬁts or social businesses are not necessarily more sustainable than for-proﬁts. Second, all business models set diﬀerent default goal priorities, but face the same governance challenge of achieving sustainability. Third, to meet this challenge, all business models can use the same governance strategies of creating value—rule reforms that implement credible commitments to overcome social dilemmas. Understanding and managing these three hybridity challenges are an essential task for the strategic management of sustainable business models in the sharing economy.
Keywords: Sharing economy | Business models | Governance | Hybrids | Sustainability
Exploring the role of the sharing economy in disasters management
بررسی نقش اقتصاد مشترک در مدیریت بلایا-2020
Improvements in information and communications technologies (ICTs) have facilitated the inclusion of the sharing economy (SE) in societies more than ever. In the aftermath of recent disasters, the SE played significant roles to help the affected people and support official responders. However, the literature has not effectively explored these roles, and thus, no framework can support the systematic inclusion of the SE in disasters management. This paper aims to address the gap through a two-stage exploratory research approach. First, we conduct a systematic literature review to identify the extent to which the SE is taken into consideration in disasters. After that, we investigate the role of three Iranian SE-based companies that were involved in the 2019 Iran floods response. We collect empirical data by conducting semi-structured interviews and reviewing official reports. Our findings indicate that very few studies discuss the different roles of the SE in disasters, although SE companies have often provided effective solutions to address critical post-disaster logistics challenges. Four research propositions are presented to describe emerging roles for SE companies. The contribution of our study is twofold. First, our research identifies the different roles that the SE could play in disasters and therefore, brings a new perspective to the literature. Second, the study suggests opportunities for collaboration and partnership models from the point of origin to delivery that can support coordination and logistics in disasters.
Keywords: Sharing economy | Disaster management | Cross-sector collaboration | The 2019 Iran floods
Impacts of peer-to-peer accommodation on the hotel industry: Hoteliers’ perspectives
اثرات محل اقامت نظیر به نظیر در صنعت هتل: دیدگاه های مدیران هتل ها-2020
The sharing economy is a new phenomenon that has considerable implications for traditional industries in general and the hospitality sector in particular. Although some recent studies have investigated the eﬀects ofsharing economy on the hotel industry, they primarily focused on quantifying its eﬀects which are not ex- ploratory for a phenomenon. This study attempts to achieve two research objectives. First, an exploratory qualitative method via a semi-structured in-depth interview is employed to investigate the impacts of P2P ac- commodation on the industry from hoteliers’ perspectives in China. Second, the current study provides valuable insights about traditional hotel marketing and operations. A social science perspective is proposed because prior hospitality research, merely in its commercial sense, fails to capture the essence of hospitality. Results indicate that P2P accommodation has eﬀects on the hotel industry in terms of host–guest interactions, product oﬀerings, staﬀ empowerment, and platform collaboration. The study also suggests that the extent to which P2P accom- modation impacts the hotel industry is diﬀerent in terms of hotel star ratings and operating model. P2P ac- commodation and the hotel industry in China have a supplementary relationship. This study contributes to social studies of the hospitality literature by gaining insights from hotel senior management level. It also has great implications for the hotel marketing and management practices within the sharing context.
Keywords: P2P accommodation | Hospitality | Host–guest interaction | Need for uniqueness | Staff empowerment | Platform collaboration
Does hosting on Airbnb offer hosts vacation-like benefits? Proposing a reconceptualization of peer-to-peer accommodation
آیا پیشنهاد میزبانی وب بر روی میزبان Airbnb منافعی دارد؟ پیشنهاد بازآفرینی اسکان نظیر به نظیر-2020
Peer-to-peer accommodation is firmly positioned as a supply-side phenomenon. Hosts are seen as providers of services; they cater to the needs of guests. In contrast to this current understanding, we propose that hosting offers tourism-like benefits, suggesting – for the first time – that suppliers of tourism services may enjoy the benefits typically reserved for consumers of tourism services. As an initial empirical proof of principle of our proposition, we compare benefit patterns of real tourism with those of hosting and other potential travel alternatives. Hosting emerges as enabling residents to harvest some of the benefits of real tourism (which is particularly attractive to residents with limited ability to travel), and offering untapped opportunities for tourism management (accommodation capacity provision) and tourism marketing (word of mouth advertising). These results suggest that considering a reconceptualization of peer-to-peer accommodation as being both a supplyand demand-side phenomenon is warranted. Findings from this study can also help destinations to recruit new hosts, and highlight hosting as a travel alternative for people who are unable to engage in real travel.
Keywords: Airbnb | Peer-to-peer accommodation | Travel benefits | Travel constraints | Sharing economy
Entrepreneurs in the making: Six decisions for fostering entrepreneurship through maker spaces
کارآفرینان در حال ساخت: شش تصمیم برای تقویت کارآفرینی از طریق فضاهای سازنده-2020
Maker spacesdshared production facilities offering access to basic and advanced manufacturing technologiesdhave quickly become the latest must-have for universities, large corporations, and communities looking to foster entrepreneurship and innovation. While the entrepreneurial and educational prospects of maker spaces are certainly intriguing, questions remain concerning their design and effectiveness. Drawing primarily on case evidence and conversations with five maker spaces located across the U.S., we identify and present six key decisions for maker space leaders looking to foster entrepreneurship in their organizations. We conclude with a decision framework for maker space leaders and a series of questions for entrepreneurs as both groups work to pursue entrepreneurship through and in maker spaces.
KEYWORDS : Maker spaces | Maker movement | Entrepreneurship | Entrepreneurial support | Sharing economy
Blockchain-based shared manufacturing in support of cyber physical systems: concept, framework, and operation
تولید مشترک مبتنی بر بلاکچین برای پشتیبانی از سیستمهای فیزیکی سایبر: مفهوم ، چارچوب و عملکرد-2019
Shared Manufacturing (SharedMfg), a Peer-to-Peer (P2P)-based resource sharing paradigm boosted by the widespread of sharing economy, servitization and Internet of things, tends to massively extend the scope of resource sharing in both vertical and horizontal directions, and as a consequence, it amplifies a credibility gap in the manufacturing area. To respond to this problem, and meanwhile, promoting the SharedMfg, blockchain is attempted to integrate into the SharedMfg. Hence, this paper proposes the Blockchain-based SharedMfg (BSM) framework in support of the application of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS). At the same time, Resource Operation Blockchain (ROB) is constructed for the core operation of BSM framework, which carries out on the basis of a consensus mechanism (i.e., Proof-of-Participation) and a Smart Contract Network (SCN), to facilitate the P2Pbased resource sharing paradigm. A prototype system is implemented by the Ethereum framework together with discussions to validate the feasibility of ROB. In brief, BSM framework complementarily combines the blockchain and SharedMfg, beneficial to promote both modes.
Keywords: Shared manufacturing | Blockchain | Resource sharing | Smart contract | Socialization manufacturing
چه چیزی در پاریس درحال رخ دادن است؟ Airbnb، هتلها و بازار پاریس: یک مطالعه موردی
سال انتشار: 2019 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 11 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 29
Airbnb (که یک وب سایت اینترنتی برای ارائه خدمات گردشگری و مهمانداری می باشد) دربین محققان و دانشمندان حوزه گردشگری و مهمانداری مورد بحث های شدید و پُرحرارت قرار گرفته است. به منظور درک تاثیر به اشتراک گذاری P2P روی چشم انداز گردشگری و مهمانداری، ابتدا فهمیدن جزئیات این بازار حائز اهمیت است. بنابراین در این مقاله ما توسعه بازار Airbnb را درطی هفت سال گذشته در پاریس که محبوب ترین مقصد گردشگری برای مهمانان Airbnb با بیش از 40000 اجاره نامه اقامتی می باشد بررسی می کنیم. این یادداشت تحقیقی یک خلاصه ای از یافته ها ما درباره بازار پاریس می باشد. مطالعه ما الگوهای مختلف رشد و فصلی بودن برای Airbnb و هتلها ونیز بی شباهتی های موجود در مکان جغرافیایی آنها را نشان می دهد. یافته ها بیانگر این هستند که دو محصول در رقابت مستقیم باهم نیستند و رابطه آنها ممکن است پیچیده تر از آن چیزی باشد که قبلا" تصور می شد. ما اعتقاد داریم که بررسی ماهیت رابطه رقابتی می تواند یک مسیر ارزشمند برای بررسی بیشتر باشد.
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Digital entrepreneurship and field conditions for institutional change– Investigating the enabling role of cities
کارآفرینی دیجیتال و شرایط میدانی برای تغییر نهادی - بررسی نقش توانمند شهرها-2019
Digital entrepreneurship may result in institutional turbulence and new initiatives are frequently blocked by vested interest groups who posit superior financial and relational resources. In this paper, we explore the role of cities in facilitating digital entrepreneurship and overcoming institutional resistance to innovation. Drawing upon two historical case studies of digital entrepreneurship in the city of Stockholm along with an extensive material on the sharing economy in Sweden, our results suggest that cities offer an environment that is critical for digital entrepreneurship. The economic and technological diversity of a city may provide the field conditions required for institutional change to take place and to avoid regulatory capture..
Keywords: Digital entrepreneurship | Digital innovation | Cities | Agglomeration | Institutional entrepreneurship | Field conditions | Regulatory capture