Women entrepreneurs as agents of change : A comparative analysis of social entrepreneurship processes in emerging markets
زنان کارآفرین به عنوان عوامل تغییر: تحلیل مقایسه ای فرایندهای کارآفرینی اجتماعی در بازارهای نوظهور-2020
In recent years, social and women entrepreneurship have become two growing fields of entrepreneurship research. In the context of social entrepreneurship, earlier research indicates that women are a better fit for leading social enterprises. However, the relevance of gender in the field of social entrepreneurship is underexplored and calls for further research, framing the mainstay of this study. Through a multiple case study approach employing four firms from two emerging markets – India and Colombia – we analyze how women entrepreneurs engage in social entrepreneurship processes in uncertain Base of the Pyramid environments. We use the effectuation lens to investigate the entrepreneurial journey and decision-making logics employed at various stages of the venture development. Findings show that women social entrepreneurs are highly motivated concerning social issues. Also, women entrepreneurs show a subtle transition between the two approaches of causation and effectuation during the venture creation processes. This study highlights the specific challenges that women entrepreneurs face in the emerging market context and the inclusive strategies they employ to enhance socio-economic development.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurship | Women entrepreneurship | Inclusive business | BoP | Emerging economies
Digitalisation, social entrepreneurship and national well-being
دیجیتالی شدن ، کارآفرینی اجتماعی و رفاه ملی-2020
This study examines the influence of digitalisation and social entrepreneurship on national well-being. Taking a configurational approach, the results show that digitalisation can benefit national well-being if the country has an adequate educational system, good governance, and a philanthropy-oriented financial system. Digitalisation can leverage these conditions in promoting national well-being. The study also contributes to entrepreneurship literature as it clarifies the role of social entrepreneurship. Social entrepreneurship impacts national well-being when institutions are weak, but it is indifferent in developed economies, which gives support to the institutional void perspective. This finding contributes to the ongoing debate on the role of the institutions on the creation of social enterprises and advances knowledge on the social impact of social entrepreneurship. Additionally, the results show that a combination of conditions is required to achieve high levels of national well-being.
Keywords: National well-being | Digitalisation | Social entrepreneurship | Institutional theory | fs/QCA
Individual capital and social entrepreneurship: Role of formal institutions
سرمایه فردی و کارآفرینی اجتماعی: نقش نهادهای رسمی-2020
Drawing on capital theory and institutional theory, we hypothesize the contingent role of a countrys formal institutions (ﬁnancial, educational, and political) on the relationship between individual capital (ﬁnancial, human and social capital) and social entrepreneurship entry. Using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data, we ﬁnd that all three forms of individual capital are important for social entrepreneurship entry. Moreover, we ﬁnd that this relationship is contingent on the formal institutional context such that (i) philanthropy-oriented ﬁnancial systems have a positive moderating eﬀect on investment of ﬁnancial capital; (ii) educational systems have a positive moderating eﬀect on investment of human capital; and (iii) political systems have a positive moderating eﬀect on investment of both human and ﬁnancial capital. We make substantial contributions to the literature on social entrepreneurship by ascertaining the nature of contingent eﬀects of formal institutions on the relationship between individual capital and the emergence of social enterprises.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurship | Institutional theory | Capital theory | Formal institutions | Global Entrepreneurship Monitor
Paradoxes and strategies in social enterprises’ dual logics enactment: A csQCA between Italy and the United Kingdom
تناقض ها و استراتژی ها در تصویب منطق دوگانه شرکت های اجتماعی: csQCA بین ایتالیا و انگلستان-2020
This study builds upon the literature around tensions, conflicts, and mission drift in social enterprises (SEs) to provide a clearer understanding of how SEs position themselves and which strategies can more effectively prevent a shift toward pure social or pure commercial outcomes. We conducted an in-depth investigation of 10 SEs in Italy and the UK contextualized in the food and beer industries. We produced a theoretical framework shedding light on the possible strategies to deal with sources of conflict and applied a csQCA to identify the most effective combination of strategies in preventing mission drift: mixed ownership and financial resource mobilization. We discuss that differences between the countries emerged due to some of the paradoxes of SEs in these industries. This is seemingly the first study adopting a csQCA in such a context, and it proved to be suitable for studying social entrepreneurship in homogenizing variables, hardly comparable otherwise.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurship | Mission drift | Tensions | Crisp-set QCA | Italy and United Kingdom | Food
From donation-based NPO to social enterprise: A journey of transformation through business-model innovation
از NPO مبتنی بر اهدا به شرکت اجتماعی: سفر تحول از طریق نوآوری در مدل کسب و کار-2020
Nonprofit organizations (NPO) have suffered from two interrelated bottlenecks: lack of funds and difficulties to grow and operate at scale. Business model innovation (BMI) has been found to be important to overcome those bottlenecks, but the extant literature is limited and lacks a solid empirical foundation. To explore this topic, we conducted a retrospective analysis of a single case study, tracking the evolution of an organizations business model as it went from being a traditional, donation-based NPO, to a dynamic sales-driven social enterprise (SE). As a result, the organization gained financial autonomy, scaled up operations and increased impact. Our findings add to the literature by identifying BMI change drivers and outcomes. We show how a platform-inspired business model can enhance value creation and value capture in a SE.
Keywords: Business model innovation | Social entrepreneurship | Value creation | Platforms
Social entrepreneurship research: A review and future research agenda
تحقیقات کارآفرینی اجتماعی: یک مرور و برنامه تحقیقاتی آینده-2020
Social Entrepreneurship (SE) is a popular area of research and practice. An analysis of the existing literature reviews on SE reveals a dearth of studies classifying the existing SE literature into multiple research themes and further presenting popular and less popular research themes. With the aim of bridging this gap, this study presents a systematic review of 188 peer reviewed SSCI journal articles published in last decade. It presents an overview of recent SE research, classifying it in five main themes while identifying the thrust areas of research in each. Based on identified research gaps, we provide future research directions, contexts and methodology.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurship | Social enterprises | Entrepreneurship | Systematic review
Is education for all? The experiences of ethnic minority students and teachers in North-western Vietnam engaging with social entrepreneurship
آیا آموزش برای همه است؟ تجارب دانش آموزان و معلمان اقلیت های قومی در شمال غربی ویتنام درگیر با کارآفرینی اجتماعی-2020
This paper discusses the challenges teachers and ethnic minority students face living in rural North-western Vietnam and how social entrepreneurship can mitigate these. The data was gathered through 33 interviews (teachers N = 10; students N = 20; parents of a student N = 2; social entrepreneur N = 1). The data were analysed using thematic analysis, drawing from Fraser’s (2010) justice model. The paper also links to Granovetter’s (1985, 2005) social embeddedness concept, to emphasise how social enterprise enabled socioeconomic networks can support ethnic minority students to overcome redistribution, representation and recognition problems. The paper makes an original contribution by showing how socio-economic networks enhance weak-ties and bridge resources to empower the socially disadvantaged to achieve educational inclusion.
Keywords: Rural education | Social entrepreneurship | Social justice | Ethnic minority
Exploring the multi-level processes of legitimacy in transnational social enterprises
بررسی فرایندهای چند سطحی حقانیت در بنگاههای اجتماعی فراملی-2020
Transnational entrepreneurship has emerged as a form of migrants participation in the social, economic, and political lives of both their countries of origin and of residence. Leveraging in- creasing evidence about migrants involvement in transnational social enterprises, we examine the multi-level processes through which organizational legitimacy is molded by transnational entrepreneurs to reflect country-level institutional settings, and how organizational-level legitimacy affects entrepreneurs social status. We longitudinally examine the multi-level processes of legitimation in a transnational social enterprise operated by Ghanaian migrants across Italy and Ghana. We analyze secondary and ethnographic data for two years, observing how transnational social enterprises harvest moral and pragmatic legitimacy from the institutional contexts in which they operate. We study how entrepreneurs construe their social status through pragmatic legitimacy obtained from their transnational ventures, and their institutional environments in- spired by micro- and meso legitimacy reconfigurations. We discuss theoretical implications for social and transnational entrepreneurship and practical contributions for policy-making.
Keywords: Legitimacy | Entrepreneurship | Social entrepreneurship | Transnational entrepreneurship | Migrants | Ethnography | Ghana | Italy
The social - market convergence in a renewable energy social enterprise
همگرایی بازار اجتماعی در یک شرکت اجتماعی با انرژی های تجدید پذیر-2020
The paper examines how the market and social logics which are supposedly counter to each other, converge into one rather than being two distinctive sets of actions, in the actions of a renewable energy social enterprise in an emerging economy context. To provide a foundation, the research draws upon literature on renewable energy, social entrepreneurship, market orientation, and social value creation. A qualitative in-depth case study research design with inductive theory-building approach for grounded theory development was conducted with two socially and environmentally inclusive renewable energy social enterprises in rural India. This resulted in a novel framework on a converging process comprising of: (a) Involved Searching, (b) Dialogic Localizing, and (c) Engaged Implementing. First, there is ‘involved searching’, where insights are generated through involved interactions for searching problematized contextual realities. Then, there is ‘dialogic localizing’, where insights are shared and acted upon through dialogically inclusive and localized solving. Finally, there is ‘engaged implementing’, where solutions are implemented through honest convincing and engaging mutuality. The ﬁndings make a novel contribu- tion towards: (a) Going beyond the duality perspective and revealing social entrepreneurship as a phenomenon where the social and the market converge as an articulated whole, (b) Advancing hybrid organizing as a converging action with trappings of social value creation and market orientation, and (c) Revealing the potential of renewable energy social enterprises in blending the social and the market while working towards a sustainable environment.© 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Renewable energy | Social entrepreneurship | Social enterprise | Market orientation | Social value creation
The research frontier on internationalization of social enterprises
مرز تحقیق در مورد بین المللی شدن بنگاههای اجتماعی-2020
Social enterprises (SEs) are hybrid organizations that simultaneously pursue ﬁnancial and social goals, while addressing institutional voids. Despite the extensive cross-border activities of SEs, the state of research ad- dressing such ﬂows of funds, technology and personnel is undeveloped. In this introductory article, we discuss the unique aspects of SEs and explore how the international business literature can inform our understanding of their internationalization. We outline promising areas for future research related to the drivers of and the processes underlying SE internationalization as well as its consequences. With this as a background, we introduce the ﬁve articles in this Special Issue.
Keywords: Social enterprises | Social entrepreneurship | Internationalization