با سلام خدمت کاربران عزیز، به اطلاع می رساند ترجمه مقالاتی که سال انتشار آن ها زیر 2008 می باشد رایگان بوده و میتوانید با وارد شدن در صفحه جزییات مقاله به رایگان ترجمه را دانلود نمایید.
Collection weeding: Innovative processes and tools to ease the burden
جمع آوری علفهای هرز : فرایندها و ابزارهای نوآورانه برای کاهش بار-2020
Evaluating collections and ultimately removing content poses a variety of difficult issues, including choosing appropriate deselection criteria, communicating with stakeholders, providing accountability, and managing the overall timetable to finish projects on time. The Science and Engineering librarians at Brigham Young University evaluated their entire print collection of over 350,000 items within one year, significantly reducing the number of items kept on the open shelves and the physical collection footprint. Keys to accomplishing this project were extensive preparation, tracking progress and accountability facilitated by Google Sheets and an interactive GIS stacks map, and stakeholder feedback facilitated by a novel web-based tool. This case study discusses guidelines to follow and pitfalls to avoid for any organization that is considering a large- or small-scale collection evaluation project.
Keywords: Weeding | Academic libraries | Collection management | Deselection of library materials | Collection evaluation
Participatory approach in Aquifer Storage and Recovery management in Arid zones, does it work?
رویکرد مشارکتی در مدیریت ذخیره سازی ابخوان و مدیریت بازیابی در مناطق خشک ، مؤثر است؟-2020
Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) with treated wastewater, is considered as an effective solution for a critical aquifer decline due to groundwater overexploitation. In ASR operational step and after the aquifer storage phase, the problem is the new groundwater right for stakeholders and specifically farmers. In a 2-year study, the potential of a participatory approach for solving this problem was investigated and applied in Fashafoeyeh aquifer in southern Tehran Province. This aquifer faces a critical situation of groundwater from point of view of quantitative and qualitative aspects. Firstly, five indicators were considered including agricultural efficiency, water resource efficiency, water governance, local participation, and economic factors. Then 23 farmers and agricultural landowners were selected based on age, education, and gender. A questionnaire was designed, surveyed, and filled out after interviewing them in several field trips to the site. The results of data analysis showed that 96% of farmers and landowners were highly motivated in the implementation of the participatory approach in ASR management. Moreover, 91% showed a high desire to decrease the groundwater withdrawal from wells. A high percentage of stakeholders had a tendency to participate in some aspects of ASR system. In the meantime, many farmers had a negative viewpoint about government supports. The results illustrate a correlation between agriculture efficiency with participation in the government’s projects and implementation. Moreover, a correlation exists between water management in the field and participation in government’s projects as well as local participatory. This research emphasises on proper planning through face-to-face dialogue with farmers and landowners. In this regard, they collaborate in a participatory approach, as well as a technical and social team to implement the aquifer storage and recovery management.
Keywords: Aquifer | Treated wastewater | Storage | People participation | Groundwater | Iran
Drivers, barriers and social considerations for AI adoption in business and management: A tertiary study
رانندگان ، موانع و ملاحظات اجتماعی برای پذیرش هوش مصنوعی در مشاغل و مدیریت: یک مطالعه عالی-2020
The number of academic papers in the area of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its applications across business and management domains has risen significantly in the last decade, and that rise has been followed by an increase in the number of systematic literature reviews. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of existing systematic reviews in this growing area of research and to synthesise their findings related to enablers, barriers and social implications of the AI adoption in business and management. The methodology used for this tertiary study is based on Kitchenham and Charter’s guidelines , resulting in a selection of 30 reviews published between 2005 and 2019 which are reporting results of 2,021 primary studies. These reviews cover the AI adoption across various business sectors (healthcare, information technology, energy, agriculture, apparel industry, engineering, smart cities, tourism and transport), management and business functions (HR, customer services, supply chain, health and safety, project management, decisionsupport, systems management and technology acceptance). While the drivers for the AI adoption in these areas are mainly economic, the barriers are related to the technical aspects (e.g. availability of data, reusability of models) as well as the social considerations such as, increased dependence on non-humans, job security, lack of knowledge, safety, trust and lack of multiple stakeholders’ perspectives. Very few reviews outside of the healthcare management domain consider human, organisational and wider societal factors and implications of the AI adoption. Most of the selected reviews are recommending an increased focus on social aspects of AI, in addition to more rigorous evaluation, use of hybrid approaches (AI and non-AI) and multidisciplinary approaches to AI design and evaluation. Furthermore, this study found that there is a lack of systematic reviews in some of the AI early adopter sectors such as financial industry and retail and that the existing systematic reviews are not focusing enough on human, organisational or societal implications of the AI adoption in their research objectives.
Keywords: artificial intelligence | business | machine learning | management | systematic literature review | tertiary study
Combining conventional and participatory approaches to identify and prioritise management and health-related constraints to smallholder pig production in San Simon, Pampanga, Philippines
تلفیق رویکردهای مرسوم و مشارکتی برای شناسایی و اولویت بندی مدیریت و محدودیتهای مرتبط با سلامتی در تولید خوک های خرده فروش در سن سیمون ، پامبانگا ، فیلیپین-2020
Pork is the main meat produced and consumed in the Philippines. The majority of pigs are raised by smallholders who experience a range of constraints to their pig production. This study presents the findings of the first part of an overarching project that used an Ecohealth approach and aimed to improve the production and competitiveness of the smallholder pig system in an area of the Philippines. A participatory approach was embraced, combining conventional and participatory epidemiology methods followed by a stakeholder discussion. The first aim was to identify management and health-related constraints to pig production among smallholder famers in San Simon, Pampanga, Philippines. The second aim was for the project team and stakeholders to jointly prioritise activities for the immediate future to address these constraints. Key management and health-related constraints identified included inadequate water supply to pigs, particularly lactating and gestating sows, and a range of feeding-related issues. Diarrhoea was recognised as the disease syndrome of highest priority and limited record keeping meant that farmers were unable to assess the productivity and profitability of their pig farming enterprises. Actions jointly prioritised by stakeholders and the project team were: the appointment of a project coordinator within each barangay; conduct two sets of seminars, the first covering water and nutrition and the second piglet management and diarrhoea, to be delivered by technical experts but with farmer “trusted sources” also sharing their experiences; development of easily understandable leaflets and posters covering key technical information; promotion of nipple drinkers attached to five-gallon water containers and creep boxes for piglets, and conduct of a record keeping workshop with a small group of innovative farmers to develop a useful and usable tool for record keeping. The use of multiple approaches to data-gathering enabled triangulation of study findings. Without any one of these components the understanding of the pig production system would have been less complete and it is possible that the proposed actions would not have been as well-tailored to the needs of the farmers. The participatory approach, in particular the stakeholder discussion, provided the opportunity to embrace the “deciding together” and “acting together” stances of participation rather than the lower “information giving” stance, thereby giving stakeholders greater ownership of the future activities of the overarching project and beyond.
Keywords: Philippines | Pig | Smallholder | Constraints | Participatory epidemiology | Ecohealth
Phase-based externality analysis for large hydropower projects
تجزیه و تحلیل بیرونی مبتنی بر فاز برای پروژه های بزرگ نیروگاهی-2020
The global pressure of reducing greenhouse gas emission with an increasing energy demand has promoted the development of hydropower projects. However, these projects are always involved with controversial issues even when providing great positive externalities. This calls for more comprehensively quantitative analysis of hydropower project externalities. This paper establishes an analysis framework for hydropower project externalities based on the Life Cycle Assessment methodology and the economic valuation of hydropower externalities, and then applies the framework to the assessment of the Three Gorges Project and the Xiluodu Project as cases. The results indicate that: (1) hydropower project externalities are multi-component and dynamic in different phases of project life cycle; (2) the construction of large hydropower projects is beneficial for social welfare promotion, but the enhancement doesnt appear immediately at the startup but with a lag; and (3) along the life cycle of a hydropower project, negative externalities are prominent in the early phases while positive ones account for a major proportion in the late phases, calling for special attention to risk management during the construction and benefit allocation management during project operation. The results and recommendations of this paper can also be applied to other types of public or private projects for better social performance.
Keywords: Externality | Life cycle assessment | Stakeholders | Hydropower project | The Three Gorges project | The Xiluodu project
Organizing external stakeholder engagement in inter-organizational projects: Opening the black box
سازماندهی مشارکت ذینفعان خارجی در پروژه های بین سازمانی: باز کردن جعبه سیاه-2020
External stakeholder engagement is crucial for delivering value to diverse stakeholders in inter-organizational projects, however, it is not straightforward to organize this in a way that adds value. The intra-organizational focus of previous research offers limited insights into the relevant roles, responsibilities, arrangements and activities in inter-organizational contexts. Moreover, comprehensive empirical studies of the phenomenon are rare. This study explicates how internal stakeholders organize external stakeholder engagement in inter-organizational projects. Our multiple-case study of two infrastructure projects in Northern Europe identified three organizing solutions based on governance, values and dynamism. While governance-based solutions provide an overall structure for organizing external stakeholder engagement, value-based solutions ensure genuine cooperation and dynamism-based solutions facilitate timely organizing. The study develops propositions that constitute a model of how external stakeholder engagement can be organized in inter-organizational projects. The findings have implications for project stakeholder management and mainstream stakeholder research.
Keywords: External stakeholders | Organizing | Stakeholder engagement | Management for stakeholders | Inter-organizational projects
Transition engineering of transport in megacities with case study on commuting in Beijing
مهندسی انتقالی از حمل و نقل در شهرهای بزرگ با مطالعه موردی در مورد رفت و آمد در پکن-2020
Private automobiles have been wildly popular around the world and have transformed the concept of personal mobility for the affluent. However, automobile-oriented development patterns have demonstrably degraded the quality of the city environment. The economic burden of transport infrastructure asset management, plus air pollution, CO2 emissions and congestion are pressing issues for all cities. City planners struggle with the issues of growth in travel demand and the costs of providing traffic management, parking, policing, and emergency services. The future of personal vehicle mobility and goods movements are particularly challenging, and it is difficult to imagine what the sustainable solutions could be for these wicked problems of transport in megacities. This paper explores urban form, transport activity and quality of life in future cities through the emerging discipline, Transition Engineering. The main methodology is the Interdisciplinary Transition Innovation, Management and Engineering (InTIME) approach, the outcome of which are innovative shift projects that directly step down the negative factors and step up in the quality of life while maintaining the access to social and economic activities. One shift project in Beijing is a new “Work Unit Retrofit” property development enterprise. Integrated land use is a popular idea, but the shift projects in this research answer the questions of “how” the transition to the future city occurs. This research demonstrates the new Transition Engineering approach to sustainable city development that results in actionable property and infrastructure development with financial and social benefits that can be clearly communicated to all stakeholders.
Keywords: Energy transition | Transition engineering | Future cities | Work unit | Adaptive capacity | Urban form | Cycling potential | Commute model
Big data analytics in health sector: Theoretical framework, techniques and prospects
تجزیه و تحلیل داده های بزرگ در بخش بهداشت و درمان: چارچوب نظری ، تکنیک ها و چشم انداز-2020
Clinicians, healthcare providers-suppliers, policy makers and patients are experiencing exciting opportunities in light of new information deriving from the analysis of big data sets, a capability that has emerged in the last decades. Due to the rapid increase of publications in the healthcare industry, we have conducted a structured review regarding healthcare big data analytics. With reference to the resource-based view theory we focus on how big data resources are utilised to create organization values/capabilities, and through content analysis of the selected publications we discuss: the classification of big data types related to healthcare, the associate analysis techniques, the created value for stakeholders, the platforms and tools for handling big health data and future aspects in the field. We present a number of pragmatic examples to show how the advances in healthcare were made possible. We believe that the findings of this review are stimulating and provide valuable information to practitioners, policy makers and researchers while presenting them with certain paths for future research.
Keywords: Big data analytics | Health-Medicine | Decision-making | Machine learning | Operations research (OR) techniques
Managing multifunctional landscapes: Local insights from a Pacific Island Country context
مدیریت مناظر چند منظوره: بینش محلی از زمینه یک کشور جزیره اقیانوس آرام-2020
Across Pacific Island Countries, projects and policies are incorporating objectives related to managing landscape multifunctionality to sustain flows of multiple, valued ecosystem services. Strategies to manage natural resources are often not effective, or do not have intended outcomes, if they do not account for local contexts and the varied needs and constraints of stakeholders who rely upon natural resources for their livelihoods. Through fieldwork in Ba, Fiji, local insights were generated concerning the institutional, geographic, and socio-economic factors which determine and challenge i) different stakeholders’ ability to access landscape resources, and ii) stakeholders’ capacities to benefit from ecosystem services. The following insights were generated from this research which are important for guiding management of landscape multifunctionality. In Ba, hierarchical governance systems present barriers to effective management of landscape multifunctionality, and projects or policies with aims to manage landscapes should establish context appropriate multi-scale governance. Such governance systems should facilitate communication and interaction between different stakeholders, build upon community knowledge, and support communities as key actors in landscape management. Consideration of the spatial footprint of landscape resources, stakeholders’ different physical and financial capacities, and the institutional structures that mediate access to resources should be central to landscape management and planning. Various climatic stressors affect flows of ecosystem services from the Ba landscape and people’s capacity to access landscape resources; therefore, it is important that management of landscapes also builds resilience to climate stressors.
Keywords: Multifunctional landscapes | Socio-ecological systems | Fiji | Pacific Islands | Ecosystem services
Co-production of knowledge and adaptation to water scarcity in developing countries
تولید دانش و سازگاری با کمبود آب در کشورهای در حال توسعه-2020
Dwindling of freshwater resources is a harsh reality of the arid and semi-arid regions of the world and climate change is expected to deteriorate their situation through major reduction of freshwater supplies. Co-production of knowledge, through active negotiation of experts, government and local stakeholders has been used as a strategy to adapt to water scarcity. However, in many developing countries, co-production of knowledge is not common and adaptation efforts rarely reflects the plurality of involved knowledge sources and actors. Given the urgent need of transition towards water-efficient agricultural practices, the Iran’s government applied the knowledge co-production approach and implemented an integrated participatory crop management (IPCM) project in the Bakian village, Fars province. The objectives of this study were to analyze the knowledge coproduction process, identify the factors contributing to adoption of the co-produced knowledge and investigate the corresponding social, economic and environmental impacts. A mixed-method research was conducted comprising a case study on 19 informants selected using purposive sampling and a survey of 150 rice producers selected through systematic random sampling. The results indicated the relevance and pertinence of knowledge co-production in recognizing the real problems of the rice producers and suggesting some potential adaptive strategies. Though a wide range of natural, financial, technical, institutional and structural constraints restricted adoption of the proposed adaptive strategies, application of the co-produced knowledge significantly increased water productivity, ensured higher yields and farm-based sustainable livelihoods, and enhanced resilience of the farm households under water scarcity. Some recommendations and implications are offered to increase adaptation of farm families to water scarcity.
Keywords: Co-production of knowledge | Adaptation | Water scarcity | Climate change | Integrated participatory crop management | Impact assessment