Acquiescence and conflict in exchanges between inbound tour operators and their overseas outbound partners: A case study on Tanzania
موافقت و تعارض در تبادل های بین عملگران گردشگری داخلی و شرکای برون مرزی آنها: یک مطالعه روی تانزانیا-2018
Achieving partner acquiescence is critical in interfirm exchanges because it allows the focal firm to achieve its desired outcomes. Using a case study on dyadic relationships between inbound tour operators in Tanzania and their overseas outbound partners, this paper investigates the effect of partner irreplaceability and distributive fairness on acquiescence, and the subsequent effect that acquiescence has on conflict. The case study uses partial least squares structural equation modeling on data collected from 129 dyadic relationships. Results show that partner irreplaceability and distributive fairness are positively associated with acquiescence, which in turn reduces conflict. The effect of distributive fairness on acquiescence was found to be larger than that of irreplaceability. In addition, the direct effect of distributive fairness on conflict, although not hypothesised, was found to be significant. This emphasises the importance of distributive fairness, and its role as a possible buffer to conflict in less acquiescent exchanges.
keywords: Partner irreplaceability| Distributive fairness| Acquiescence| Conflict| Interfirm exchange| Tourism value chain
Four forces of supply chain social sustainability adoption in emerging economies
چهار نیروی پذیرش ماندگاری اجتماعی زنجیره تامین در اقتصادهای نوظهور-2018
Despite the growing stakeholder awareness on social sustainability issues, little is known about what influences firms to adopt social sustainability in their supply chain management practices and the benefits gained from such efforts. This is especially true for emerging economies in Asia and Southwestern Europe, where the social norms differ significantly. Building on stakeholders and institutional perspectives, we address the issue by exploring how pressures from customers, sustainability culture, government, and external stakeholders act as primary constituents of the firm in determining the extent to which firm consider supply chain social sustainability adoption in emerging economies. Further, we explore how such social sustainability adoption relates to the firm suppliers social performance, the buyers operational performance and the buying firms social reputation. We test the hypothesized model empirically using data from 244 Indian and 126 Portuguese firms. Our results are consistent with the hypothesized model; all factors show significant influence and positive links with the firms benefits.
keywords: Social sustainability |Emerging economy |Sustainability |Institutional mechanisms |Structural equation modeling
Establishing relationship between TQM practices and employee performance: The mediating role of change readiness
برقراری رابطه بین روشهای مدیریت کل کیفیت و عملکرد کارکنان: نقش واسطه ای آمادگی برای تغییر-2018
The study aims to examine the relationship between Total Quality Management (TQM) practices and employee performance in dynamic technological sector. In addition, the mediating role of individual change readiness (ICR) between TQM practices and employee performance is also observed. The quantitative study has been carried out in software houses of Pakistan and data is analyzed through descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and Structural Equation Modeling. The results reveal that TQM practices and ICR provide significant support to measure employee performance. Furthermore, the results of this study also support the mediating role of ICR. Findings are important because employee change readiness brings a sound contribution to the level of organizational change. This study is a novel contribution of ICR mediation on the relationships between TQM practices and employee performance.
keywords: Individual change readiness |TQM practices |Employee performance |Software houses |Pakistan
Environmental uncertainty, specific assets, and opportunism in 3PL relationships: A transaction cost economics perspective
عدم قطعیت محیطی، دارایی های ویژه و فرصت طلبی در روابط 3PL: یک دیدگاه اقتصادی هزینه ای تراکنشی-2018
Service provider opportunism is a serious concern in third party logistics (3PL) relationships. However, our knowledge about the antecedents of 3PL providers opportunism is limited. According to transaction cost economics (TCE), increased transaction costs cause opportunism. This study incorporates key TCE constructs (environmental uncertainty, specific assets, and opportunism) and conducts a transaction cost analysis. We argue that environmental uncertainty and specific assets create exchange hazards that result in opportunism. Meanwhile, specific assets reduce coordination costs raised by environmental uncertainty. Building on these arguments, this study tests a model that hypothesizes that environmental uncertainty (demand, supply, and technology uncertainty), and specific assets (user- and provider-specific assets) are positively related to opportunism, and that environmental uncertainty is positively related to specific assets. Structural equation modeling is used to examine data from 247 3PL relationships in China. The results show that demand uncertainty decreases opportunism, supply uncertainty increases opportunism, and technology uncertainty does not have a significant effect. User-specific assets increase opportunism, while provider-specific assets decrease opportunism. Demand and supply uncertainty have positive effects on user-specific assets, but non-significant effects on provider-specific assets, while technology uncertainty does not have a significant impact on user or provider-specific assets. In general, our findings are supported by the rationale of TCE, and industrial or cultural factors can explain several surprising findings. This study contributes to 3PL literature and practice.
keywords: Environmental uncertainty |Specific assets |Opportunism |3PL |Transaction cost economics
Antecedents to innovation performance in SMEs: A mixed methods approach
سوابق به عملکرد نوآوری در شرکتهای کوچک و متوسط: یک روش رویکرد ترکیبی-2018
The studies on product innovation performance (PIP) are not conclusive. In this paper, we use a mixed methods approach to fill this gap. First, we use structural equation modeling to determine the antecedents to PIP and whether a managers training level moderates the relation between the antecedents and PIP. Second, we apply a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to identify alternative configurations that lead either to PIP or its absence. The sample comprises data from an online survey of 367 certified innovative Portuguese small and medium enterprises. The results show that the antecedents to information technology support and knowledge sharing positively affect an organizations learning capacity that in turn positively affects PIP. No evidence exists for the moderating effect of the training level. The efficiency of PIP positively affects its efficacy. Alternative configurations exist that lead to the presence or absence of this efficacy.
Keywords: Product innovation performance ، Mixed methods ، Structural equations modeling ، Fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis
Expatriates managers’ cultural intelligence as promoter of knowledge transfer in multinational companies
هوش فرهنگی مدیران به عنوان ترویج انتقال دانش در شرکت های چند ملیتی-2018
This study analyzes the role of the Cultural Intelligence (CQ) of expatriate managers in the processes of Conventional (CKT) and Reverse Knowledge Transfer (RKT) in Multinational Companies (MNCs). The Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) technique was adopted to analyze the data from a survey of 103 senior expatriate managers working in Croatia. The study reveals how CQ, in all of its four dimensions (metacognitive, cognitive, behavioral, and motivational), acts as a knowledge de-codification and codification filter, assisting managers in the Knowledge Transfer process. The study also reveals how previous international experience does not moderate the positive effect of CQ on both CKT and RKT, offering important theoretical and practical insights to support MNCs in the KT process.
Keywords: Cultural Intelligence ، Knowledge Transfer ، MNCs ، Croatia ، PLS-SEM
The congruity effects of commercial brand sponsorship in a regional event
تاثیرات متجانس حمایت مالی و تجاری نشان و برند در یک رویداد منطقه ای-2018
Reduced funding and support from governments have turned regional events and festivals to seeking commercial sponsorships to maintain their financial viability. However, few studies have examined how sponsorship brand effects are formulated. Using congruity theory, the purpose of this research was to examine sponsorship brand effects in an integrative model based on the relationships among event image, sponsoring brand image, and visitors self-images. Using a sample of 258 visitors to the Hwacheon Tomato Festival sponsored by the Ottogi brand in South Korea, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the study hypotheses. The findings indicate that self-congruity with sponsoring brand image influences sponsoring brand attitude, which, in turn, influences sponsoring brand loyalty. The congruity between event image and sponsoring brand image influences sponsoring brand loyalty by mediating the effects of event attitude and sponsoring brand attitude. Self-congruity with event image influenced sponsoring brand loyalty by mediating event attitude and sponsoring brand attitude.
keywords: Regional event |Event sponsorship |Congruity theory |Sponsoring brand loyalty |Integrative congruity model
Public trust in mega event planning institutions: The role of knowledge, transparency and corruption
اعتماد عمومی به موسسات برنامه ریزی رویدادهای بزرگ: نقش دانش، شفافیت و فساد-2018
The political ramifications of hosting mega-events are huge. In this article, we investigate the relationships among corruption, transparency, knowledge, and public trust using data collected from 3786 Brazilians in the context of the 2014 FIFA World Cup Games. Findings from the structural equation modeling indicate that public trust in government is determined by the respondents perceptions of corruption and transparency and their level of knowledge about the roles of government and the local organizing committee in the mega-event. The respondents’ level of trust in the local organizing committee also exerts an influence on their trust in the government. The implications of the findings for governments planning to host mega-events in the future are discussed. This research makes an important contribution to the literature, being the first study to test a theoretical model that analyses the relationships between corruption, transparency, knowledge, and public trust in the context of a mega-sport event.
keywords: Mega-events |Public trust |Corruption |Transparency |Governance |Tourism |FIFA World Cup
Perceived leader behavioral integrity and employee voice in SMEs travel agents: The mediating role of empowering leader behaviors
یکپارچگی رفتاری مشاهده شده رهبر و صدای کارمند در آژانس های مسافرتی SEM ها: نقش واسطه ای رفتارهای توانمندسازی رهبری-2018
This paper investigates how perceived leader behavioral integrity and empowering leader behaviors stimulate employee voice at SMEs travel agents in Egypt. Data were collected from 500 frontline employees. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS–SEM) was employed to test the hypotheses. The findings confirmed that perceived leader behavioral integrity significantly impacted empowering leader behaviors and employee voice. Empowering leader behaviors positively influenced employee voice. Moreover, the results showed that empowering leader behaviors mediated the relationship between perceived leader behavioral integrity and employee voice. Finally, there were no differences between family and non-family businesses in most of the relationships studied.
keywords: Leader integrity |Speaking up and speaking out |Coaching |Participative decision making |Informing |SMEs travel agents |Egypt
Knowledge-oriented leadership and open innovation: Role of knowledge management capability in France-based multinationals
رهبری دانش محور و نوآوری باز: نقش قابلیت مدیریت دانش در شرکت های چند ملیتی مستقر در فرانسه-2018
This paper discusses the links between knowledge-oriented leadership, open innovation and knowledge man agement in the international business context. Open innovation has become crucial for an increasing number of multinational enterprises (MNEs) to gain and maintain competitive advantage and become a market leader. Despite the recent proliferation of papers dealing with open innovation practices of MNEs, there is limited work investigating the role of knowledge management (KM) capability on the relationship between knowledge-or iented leadership and open innovation. Given MNEs’ growing interest in open innovation, the lack of research on knowledge-oriented leadership and KM capability in the open innovation context is a significant research gap in our knowledge. In response, we conducted a study on the mediating role of KM capability in the linkage between knowledge-oriented leadership and open innovation (inbound and outbound), using data collected from 172 subsidiaries of MNEs based in France. A structural equation modelling approach is employed to study the impact of the latent variables associated with knowledge-oriented leadership and KM capability on open innovation. The results indicate that higher levels of knowledge-oriented leadership can lead to enhanced KM capability and improved open innovation outcomes. That is, knowledge-oriented leadership has a direct, positive impact on KM capability and open innovation. Also, KM capability is found to mediate the linkage between knowledge-oriented leadership and open innovation. This study provides useful insights for managers who wish to enhance open innovation activities in MNEs, and offers useful guidance to international business scholars, encouraging further research in this area.
Keywords: Open innovation ، Knowledge management capability ، Knowledge-oriented leadership ، Structural equation modeling ، Multinational companies