Binge drinking and cigarette smoking among teens: Does body image play a role?
نوشیدن مشروب و استعمال سیگار دربین نوجوانان: آیا تصویر بدن ایفای نقش می کند؟-2018
Adolescence is a critical juncture for the development of ones physical, mental, and social self, which includes body image. Previous research has linked poor body image and substance use in adolescents, but existing research on sex differences in these relationships is conflicting. The current study will examine the relationship between body image and substance use in adolescent males and females using data from the Oregon Youth Substance Use Project (OYSUP), focusing on alcohol and tobacco use. The logistic regression results indicated that females who reported lower satisfaction with body image engaged in more binge drinking and smoking, while the relationship was not significant for males. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
keywords: Body image| Substance use| Adolescence| Youth development
نوشیدن مشروب و کشیدن سیگار دربین نوجوانان: آیا تصویر بدن ایفای نقش می کند؟
سال انتشار: 2018 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 5 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 19
نوجوانی یک موقعیت بحرانی برای توسعه شخصیت فیزیکی، روحی و اجتماعی یک فرد است که شامل تصویر بدن نیز می شود. تحقیقات قبلی، تصویر ضعیف بدن و استعمال مواد در نوجوانان را به هم مرتبط کرده است اما تحقیقات فعلی روی تفاوت های جنسیتی در این روابط باهم تعارض دارند. مطالعه حاضر رابطه بین تصویر بدن و استعمال مواد در پسران و دختران نوجوان را با استفاده از داده های حاصل از پروژه استعمال مواد جوانان ایالت اورگون و با تمرکز روی استعمال الکل وتنباکو بررسی خواهد کرد. نتایج رگراسیون منطقی بیانگر این بود که دخترانی که رضایت پایین تری از تصویر بدن گزارش کرده اند بیشتر به نوشیدن مشروب و سیگار کشیدن مشغول بوده اند درحالیکه این رابطه برای پسران قابل توجه نبود. دلالت ها برای تحقیقات عملی و آتی مورد بحث قرار می گیرند.
کلیدواژه ها: تصویر بدن | استعمال مواد | نوجوانی | توسعه جوانان
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
A pilot study to explore the effects of substances on cognition, mood, performance, and experience of daily activities
یک مطالعه آزمایشی جهت بررسی تاثیرات مواد روی شناخت، حالت، عملکرد و تجربه فعالیتهای روزانه-2018
Purpose This pilot study was designed to deliberately examine the enhancement effects and experiences of substances used among professionals and students in professional programs. Methods A mixed methods design was implemented, involving ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and interviews. The analysis presents interpretations about the perceived impact of substance use on the performance and experience of everyday activities. Results Caffeine, alcohol, antidepressants, pain suppressant, and cannabis were used by the most participant. Participants reported effects of substances that directly or indirectly enhanced performance (e.g., sleep, socialisation), mood (e.g., manage stress, relax), cognition (e.g., energy and clarity of thought), and the general experience of activities (e.g., enjoyment). Less common effects included impaired work, school, or leisure performance, injury, sleep disruption, and pain or discomfort. Reactivity was an unexpected effect, with almost half of the interviewees reporting changes in their thoughts about their substance use, and 30% of interviewees making active changes. Conclusion This study was novel in population and data collection. Complex perspectives about substance use were offered by recruiting professionals and students outside at-risk populations or addiction-related services. By examining effects of substances, this research offers nuanced understandings of self-reported effects of psychoactive substances on performance, mood, cognition, and quality of experience.
keywords: Substance use |Professionals |Professional students |Performance |Experience |Ecological momentary assessment |Substance effects
Social causation and neighborhood selection underlie associations of neighborhood factors with illicit drug-using social networks and illicit drug use among adults relocated from public housing
علل اجتماعی و انتخاب محله به عنوان انجمن های عوامل محله با شبکه های اجتماعی غیر قانونی استفاده از مواد مخدر و استفاده از مواد مخدر غیرمجاز در بین بزرگسالان خانه های عمومی-2017
Theories of social causation and social influence, which posit that neighborhood and social network characteristics are distal causes of substance use, are frequently used to interpret associations among neighborhood characteristics, social network characteristics and substance use. These associations are also hypothesized to result from selection processes, in which substance use determines where people live and who they interact with. The potential for these competing selection mechanisms to co-occur has been underexplored among adults. This study utilizes path analysis to determine the paths that relate census tract characteristics (e.g., economic deprivation), social network characteristics (i.e., having 1 illicit drug-using network mem ber) and illicit drug use, among 172 African American adults relocated from public housing in Atlanta, Georgia and followed from 2009 to 2014 (7 waves). Individual and network-level characteristics were captured using surveys. Census tract characteristics were created using administrative data. Waves 1 (pre-relocation), 2 (1st wave post-relocation), and 7 were analyzed. When controlling for individual-level sociodemographic factors, residing in census tracts with prior economic disadvantage was significantly associated with illicit drug use at wave 1; illicit drug use at wave 1 was significantly associated with living in economically-disadvantaged census tracts at wave 2; and violent crime at wave 2 was associated with illicit drug-using social network members at wave 7. Findings from this study support theories that describe social causation and neighborhood selection processes as explaining relationships of neighborhood characteristics with illicit drug use and illicit drug using social networks. Policies that improve local economic and social conditions of neighborhoods may discourage substance use. Future studies should further identify the barriers that prevent substance users from obtaining housing in less disadvantaged neighborhoods.
Keywords: Social epidemiology | Housing | Neighborhoods | Drug use
The relationship between social desirability bias and self-reports of health, substance use, and social network factors among urban substance users in Baltimore, Maryland
ارتباط بین تعصب مطلوبیت اجتماعی و گزارش خود درباره سلامت، مصرف مواد و عوامل شبکه اجتماعی در میان مصرف کنندگان مواد شهری در بالتیمور، مریلند-2017
Background: Social desirability response bias may lead to inaccurate self-reports and erroneous study conclusions. The present study examined the relationship between social desirability response bias and self reports of mental health, substance use, and social network factors among a community sample of inner-city substance users. Methods: The study was conducted in a sample of 591 opiate and cocaine users in Baltimore, Maryland from 2009 to 2013. Modified items from the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale were included in the survey, which was conducted face-to-face and using Audio Computer Self Administering Interview (ACASI) methods. Results: There were highly statistically significant differences in levels of social desirability response bias by levels of depressive symptoms, drug use stigma, physical health status, recent opiate and cocaine use, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores, and size of social networks. There were no associations between health service utilization measures and social desirability bias. In multiple logistic regression models, even after including the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) as a measure of depressive symptomology, social desirability bias was associated with recent drug use and drug user stigma. Social desirability bias was not associated with enrollment in prior research studies. Conclusions: These findings suggest that social desirability bias is associated with key health measures and that the associations are not primarily due to depressive symptoms. Methods are needed to reduce social desirability bias. Such methods may include the wording and prefacing of questions, clearly defining the role of “study participant,” and assessing and addressing motivations for socially desirable responses.
Keywords: Opiates | Cocaine | Heroin | Social desirability bias | Mental health | Self-reports
How many or how much? Testing the relative influence of the number of social network risks versus the amount of time exposed to social network risks on post-treatment substance use
چقدر یا چقدر؟ تست تاثیر نسبی تعداد خطرات شبکه اجتماعی در مقایسه با میزان زمان در معرض خطر شبکه های اجتماعی در استفاده از مواد پس از درمان-2017
Background: Having high-risk, substance-using friends is associated with young adult substance use disorder (SUD) relapse. It is unclear, however, whether it is the total number of high-risk friends, or the amount of time spent with high-risk friends that leads to relapse. Unclear also, is to what extent low-risk friends buffer risk. This study examined the influence of number of high-risk and low-risk friends, and the amount time spent with these friends on post-treatment percent days abstinent (PDA). Method: Young adult inpatients (N = 302) were assessed at intake, and 3, 6, and 12 months on social network measures and PDA. Mixed models tested for effects of number of high- and low-risk friends, and time spent with these friends on PDA, and for net-risk friend effects to test whether low-risk friends offset risk. Results: Within and across assessments, number of, and time spent with high-risk friends was negatively associated with PDA, while the inverse was true for low-risk friends. Early post-treatment, time spent with friends more strongly predicted PDA than number of friends. Participants were more deleteriously affected by time with high-risk friends the longer they were out of treatment, while contemporaneously protection conferred by low-risk friends increased. This interaction effect, however, was not observed with number of high- or low risk friends, or number of friends net-risk. Conclusions: Young adult SUD patients struggling to break ties with high-risk friends should be encouraged to minimize time with them. Clinicians should also encourage patients to grow their social network of low-risk friends.
Keywords: Substance use | Addiction | Recovery | Emerging adults | Social network risk | Treatment outcomes
Characteristics of Firearm Brain Injury Survivors in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database: A Comparison of Assault and Self-Inflicted Injury Survivors
ویژگی های بازماندگان آسیب مغزی آتشین در پایگاه ملی سیستم های مدل آسیب های مغزی ضرب دیده (TBIMS): مقایسه تجاوز و ضرب خود تحمیلی آسیب بازماندگان-2017
Objective: To characterize and compare subgroups of survivors with assault-related versus self-inflicted traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) via firearms at the time of inpatient rehabilitation and at 1-, 2-, and 5-year follow-up. Design: Secondary analysis of data from the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database (TBIMS NDB), a multicenter, longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Retrospective analyses of a subset of individuals enrolled in the TBIMS NDB. Participants: Individuals 16 years and older (NZ399; 310 via assault, 89 via self-inflicted injury) with a primary diagnosis of TBI caused by firearm injury enrolled in the TBIMS NDB. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Disability Rating Scale, Glasgow Outcome ScaleeExtended, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, race, marital status), injury-related/acute care information (posttraumatic amnesia, loss of consciousness, time from injury to acute hospital discharge), and mental health variables (substance use history, psychiatric hospitalizations, suicide history, incarcerations). Results: Individuals who survived TBI secondary to a firearm injury differed by injury mechanism (assault vs self-inflicted) on critical demographic, injury-related/acute care, and mental health variables at inpatient rehabilitation and across long-term recovery. Groups differed in terms of geographic area, age, ethnicity, education, marital status, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, and alcohol abuse, suicide attempts, and psychiatric hospitalizations at various time points. Conclusions: These findings have implications for prevention (eg, mental health programming and access to firearms in targeted areas) and for rehabilitation planning (eg, by incorporating training with coping strategies and implementation of addictions-related services) for firearm-related TBI, based on subtype of injury.
How Urban Youth Perceive Relationships Among School Environments, Social Networks, Self-Concept, and Substance Use
چگونه شهروندان شهری درک می کنند که روابط بین محیط های مدرسه، شبکه های اجتماعی، مفهوم خود و استفاده از مواد-2017
OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest adolescent substance use aligns with academic and behavioral self-concept (whether teens think of themselves as good or bad students and as rule followers or rule breakers) as well as peer and adult social networks. Schools are an important context in which self-concept and social networks develop, but it remains unclear how school environments might be leveraged to promote healthy development and prevent substance use. We sought to describe how youth perceive the relationships among school environments, adolescent selfconcept, social networks, and substance use. METHODS: Semistructured interviews with 32 low-income minority youth (aged 17–22 years) who participated in a prior study, explored self-concept development, school environments, social networks, and substance use decisions. Recruitment was stratified by whether, during high school, they had healthy or unhealthy self-concept profiles and had engaged in or abstained from substance use. RESULTS: Youth described feeling labeled by peers and teachers and how these labels became incorporated into their self concept. Teachers who made students feel noticed (eg, by learning students’ names) and had high academic expectations reinforced healthy self-concepts. Academic tracking, extracur ricular activities, and school norms determined potential friend ship networks, grouping students either with well-behaving or misbehaving peers. Youth described peer groups, combined with their self-concept, shaping their substance use decisions. Affirming healthy aspects of their self-concept at key risk behavior decision points helped youth avoid substance use in the face of peer pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Youth narratives suggest school environments shape adolescent self-concept and adult and peer social net works, all of which impact substance use.
KEYWORDS: qualitative research | schools | social networks | self concept | substance use | youth
Housing mobility and adolescent mental health: The role of substance use, social networks, and family mental health in the moving to opportunity study
تحرک مسکن و سلامت روان نوجوانان: نقش استفاده از مواد، شبکه های اجتماعی و سلامت روانی خانواده در عبور به فرصت مطالعاتی-2017
The Moving to Opportunity (MTO) experiment was a housing mobility program begun in the mid-nineties that relocated volunteer low income families from public housing to rental units in higher opportunity neighbor hoods in 5 US cities, using the Section 8 affordable housing voucher program. Compared to the control group who stayed behind in public housing, the MTO voucher group exhibited a harmful main effect for boys’ mental health, and a beneficial main effect for girls’ mental health. But no studies have examined how this social experiment caused these puzzling, opposite gender effects. The present study tests potential mediating mechanisms of the MTO voucher experiment on adolescent mental health (n=2829, aged 12–19 in 2001– 2002). Using Inverse Odds Ratio Weighting causal mediation, we tested whether adolescent substance use comorbidity, social networks, or family mental health acted as potential mediators. Our results document that comorbid substance use (e.g. past 30 day alcohol use, cigarette use, and number of substances used) significantly partially mediated the effect of MTO on boys’ behavior problems, resulting in -13% to -18% percent change in the total effect. The social connectedness domain was a marginally significant mediator for boys’ psychological distress. Yet no tested variables mediated MTOs beneficial effects on girls’ psychological distress. Confounding sensitivity analyses suggest that the indirect effect of substance use for mediating boys’ behavior problems was robust, but social connectedness for mediating boys’ psychological distress was not robust. Understanding how housing mobility policies achieve their effects may inform etiology of neighborhoods as upstream causes of health, and inform enhancement of future affordable housing programs.
Keywords: Neighborhood effects | Housing mobility | Social experiment | Mediation | Mental health | Adolescents
The Role of Social-Emotional and Social Network Factors in the Relationship Between Academic Achievement and Risky Behaviors
نقش عوامل اجتماعی-احساسی و اجتماعی در رابطه بین پیشرفت تحصیلی و رفتارهای پرخطر-2017
BACKGROUND: We examined whether standardized test scores and grades are related to risky behaviors among low-income minority adolescents and whether social networks and socialemotional factors explained those relationships. METHODS: We analyzed data from 929 high school students exposed by natural experiment to high- or low-performing academic environments in Los Angeles. We collected information on grade point average (GPA), substance use, sexual behaviors, participation in fights, and carrying a weapon from face-to-face interviews and obtained California math and English standardized test results. Logistic regression and mediation analyses were used to examine the relationship between achievement and risky behaviors. RESULTS: Better GPA and California standardized test scores were strongly associated with lower rates of substance use, high-risk sexual behaviors, and fighting. The unadjusted relative odds of monthly binge drinking was 0.72 (95% confidence interval, 0.56–0.93) for 1 SD increase in standardized test scores and 0.46 (95% confidence interval, 0.29–0.74) for GPA of B or higher compared with Cþ or lower. Most associations disappeared after controlling for social-emotional and social network factors. Averaged across the risky behaviors, mediation analysis revealed social-emotional factors accounted for 33% of the relationship between test scores and risky behaviors and 43% of the relationship between GPA with risky behaviors. So cial network characteristics accounted for 31% and 38% of the relationship between behaviors with test scores and GPA, respectively. Demographic factors, parenting, and school char acteristics were less important explanatory factors. CONCLUSIONS: Social-emotional factors and social network characteristics were the strongest explanatory factors of the achievement-risky behavior relationship and might be impor tant to understanding the relationship between academic achievement and risky behaviors.
KEYWORDS: adolescent health | educational status | sexual activity | substance abuse | violence