Managing micro and small enterprise supply chains: A multi-level approach to sustainability, resilience and regional development
مدیریت زنجیره تأمین شرکت های خرد و کوچک: رویکردی چند سطح برای پایداری ، انعطاف پذیری و توسعه منطقه ای-2021
Amidst the high number of frameworks associated with supply chain sustainability (SCS), proper consideration to the role and importance of micro and small enterprises (MSEs) has been missing in the literature. To address this research gap, this paper investigates the driving factors that support MSE supply chains to achieve sustainability. We employ institutional and complexity theories to broaden our understanding of the dynamics behind neglected supply chain structures, especially the ones predominantly formed by MSEs. An in-depth nested case study is carried out in a MSE supply chain in an emerging economy, where 33 supply chain players were involved in the data collection. Using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches to analyze the data, we find that to truly implement SCS, research and practice should consider not only the strategic, structural and process levels, but also the contextual level, which is critical dimension to SCS dynamics. Results show that MSE supply chains contribute significantly to regional socio-economic development due to their local roots and regional history. Also, findings demonstrate that MSE supply chains have enhanced resilience to crises (e.g., economic, political and other disruptions) because they are often focused on long-standing economic activities within the regional ecosystems. This paper contributes to theory by arguing that SCS is a much more complex phenomenon in practice than the current theory implies. Therefore, incorporating the diversity from reality and the peculiarities of MSE supply chains into the SCS debate helps the literature to get closer to the SCS practice.
Keywords: Supply chain sustainability | Micro and small enterprise supply chains | Supply chain resilience | Regional development | Emerging economy
Integrating corporate website information into qualitative assessment for benchmarking green supply chain management practices for the chemical industry
ادغام اطلاعات وب سایت شرکت ها در ارزیابی کیفی برای محک زدن شیوه های مدیریت زنجیره تامین سبز برای صنایع شیمیایی-2021
The China’s chemical industry has been endeavoring to promote sustainable development through practicing green supply chain management (GSCM). This paper proposes a multi-criteria decision framework with twenty practices to guide companies in the industry to enact GSCM effectively. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) has been used to cluster the proposed practices. We found five aspects, including economic initiatives, environmental management, eco-design, resource recycling, and stakeholder and employee, constitute the underlying structure of GSCM. A mixed decision tool combining the entropy weight method (EWM) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been developed and applied to identify key factors. Official website information has been collected and used to analyse the website contents of five benchmarking companies in the China’s chemical industry. The results reveal that the aspects of environmental management, eco-design and resource recycling are the most important GSCM themes. Moreover, the top five practices are top management support, performing life cycle assessment, managing environmental risks, advancing recycling technologies and integrating reverse logistics. Conceptual and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Environmental management | Eco-design | Resource recycling | Entropy weight | Analytic hierarchy process | Decision analysis
Digital extraction: Blockchain traceability in mineral supply chains
استخراج دیجیتال: قابلیت ردیابی بلاکچین در زنجیره های تأمین مواد معدنی-2021
Digital data — including technologically-mediated data generated by blockchain-enabled traceability — is performing an increasingly integral role in extractive operations, but scarce attention has been paid to the structuring effect of these digital technologies or the socio-economic spatiality of data-driven mining operations. Drawing on extensive qualitative research (interviews, participant observation, and two sets of survey data among actors relevant to these mineral supply chains), this article advances the notion of “digital extraction” todescribe the collection, analysis, and instrumentalization of digital data generated under the banner of blockchain-based due diligence, chain of custody certifications, and various transparency mechanisms, situated alongside and in support of mineral extraction. The article mobilizes concepts from political geography and political ecology to argue that digital technologies of traceability in extractive processes potentially create new forms of control and exclusion or exacerbate existing social, political, and territorial dispossession through asymmetric relations of power and knowledge in mineral supply chains. Despite industry efforts to make mineral supply chains more sustainable by resorting to digital certification and traceability, the strategic uses of un- certainty, ignorance, and ambiguity undergirding blockchain-enabled traceability systems fail to challenge existing inequalities in resource use and access or fulfill the promise of transparency and accountability.
Keywords: Blockchain | Traceability | Mining | Digital extraction | Certification | Digital technology | Political ecology
Bargaining power as moderator of the “delay costs effect” in supply chain negotiations
قدرت چانه زنی به عنوان تعدیل کننده "اثر هزینه تأخیر" در مذاکرات زنجیره تامین-2021
This paper explores the extent to which bargaining power asymmetries among supply chain members moderate the effect that the delay costs of the setting exert on negotiation outcomes. First, we propose that the influence of delay costs on the initial gap between the bargaining demands of sellers and buyers (i.e., initial bargaining gap) decreases when buyers have a bargaining power advantage over sellers. Second, we posit that this moderation effect reduces the indirect effect that the delay costs have on negotiation outcomes (via the initial bargaining gap). To test these notions, we conduct a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment with undergraduate students from a large European university in which we manipulate the relative bargaining power and delay costs of the setting. We conduct our analysis with 292 observations. Our findings support our theoretical predictions. Specifically, results indicate that bargaining power moderates (i.e., reduces) the effect of the delay costs on negotiation processes by reducing their influence on the initial bargaining gap. Likewise, our analysis shows that because more powerful buyers are less likely to modify their behavior as a result of the delay costs, they face a higher risk of obtaining suboptimal bargaining profits.
Keywords: Relative bargaining power | Delay costs | Initial bargaining gap | Supply chain negotiations
3PL firm’s equity financing for technology innovation in a platform supply chain
تأمین مالی سهام شرکت 3PL برای نوآوری در فناوری در یک زنجیره تامین سیستم عامل-2021
Technologies have been driving improvements in logistics and transportation. Focusing on a third-party logistics (3PL) firm’s technology innovations supported by external equity financing, we examine how the innovations can benefit the supply chain, and how the supply chain members should respond with coordinated operational decisions. More specifically, we consider a platform supply chain where a supplier sells a single product on an online platform provided by a retailer, and then hires a 3PL firm for transportation services. The 3PL firm may choose to raise capital through equity financing from external financial institutions, which can be used to support technology innovations to reduce the transportation cost. The financing decision of the 3PL in- teracts with operational decisions of the platform supply chain via possible cost savings. We start with investigating the supply chain coordination by characterizing the optimal operational decisions of the three firms under any given equity financing strategy. Acting non-cooperatively, the 3PL firm and the online retailer first determine the freight charge and revenue sharing respectively, in light of which the supplier’s decision on the retail price. We then move to the 3PL firm internally and derive the optimal equity financing strategy. Our analytical results show that the supply chain efficiency is dependent on the cost allocation between the retailer and the other two firms, but independent of the cost allocation between those two firms. It is also revealed that the original shareholders of the 3PL firm always have a chance to benefit from an appropriate financing strategy, and the optimal financing strategy may depend discontinuously on supply chain parameters. Finally, we check the robustness of our model and show that all key findings remain unchanged when relaxing the deterministic cost reduction to an uncertain one.
Keywords: Technology innovation | Equity financing | Platform supply chain | Non-cooperative game theory
Reframing supply chain finance in an era of reglobalization: On the value of multi-sided crowdfunding platforms
تغییر شکل مالی زنجیره تأمین در دوره جهانی سازی: در مورد ارزش سیستم عامل های سرمایه گذاری چند جانبه-2021
This paper investigates the moderating role of a host government that promotes a multi-sided platform (MSP) as an alternative supply chain finance (SCF) solution. The MSP comprises eq- uity crowdfunding, fixed-income funds, and low-rate lending facilities. We examine the sequential interactions between the host government (as the dominant legislator), a crowd of risk-averse small investors, and two competing SCs (local and foreign) that are engaged in Cournot competition. The players’ equilibrium strategies are characterized under two platform power structures, namely small investors-led and SC-led. The joint impact of government legislation and platform’s configuration on the performance of the proposed SCF mechanism is investigated. Results reveal that, while the regulated MSP outperforms a deregulated scenario, the profit- seeking behavior of the host government may intensify the power struggle between the local SC and small investors, and restrict the platform’s overall performance. To successfully practice smart protectionism, policy makers are urged to reframe existing SCF schemes by leveraging their moderating influence and prioritizing social welfare over their short-term economic goals. This not only abates the power imbalance in MSPs, but also enhances the players’ participation and enables host governments to further support their digital platform economy in the era of reglobalization.
Keywords: Supply chain finance | Multi-sided platform | Equity crowdfunding | Digital platform economy | Platform power | Reglobalization
How to select a Supply Chain Finance solution?
چگونه می توان یک راه حل تامین مالی برای زنجیره تامین را انتخاب کرد؟-2021
In the complex picture of Supply Chain Finance (SCF), there is still a need for a model supporting managerial decisions in selecting the most suitable financing solution. The objective of the presented exploratory work is to bring together the relational aspects between buyers and suppliers, and the characteristics of SCF solutions. Based on expert interviews and a focus group, the main result consists of a classification model of buyer-led SCF solutions, according to the characteristics of the relationship between a buyer and its suppliers, in terms of bargaining power and cumulative transaction value. The model thus describes the logics behind the adoption by a buyer firm of one or more SCF solutions to be implemented with different suppliers.
Keywords: SCF | Decision making | Bargaining power
Analyzing a closed-loop sustainable supply chain with duopolistic retailers under different game structures
تجزیه و تحلیل یک زنجیره تامین حلقه بسته پایدار با خرده فروشان دوپولیستی تحت ساختارهای مختلف بازی-2021
This article investigates a closed-loop supply chain consisting of a manufacturer, two suppliers and two competitive retailers. One retailer sells manufactured products whereas the other retailer sells remanufactured products and takes up corporate social responsibility (CSR). One supplier supplies used products or cores for remanufacturing while the other supplier supplies fresh raw materials for manufacturing new product. The manufacturer sells both new and remanufactured products with different wholesale prices. The paper analyzes the two competitive retailers different game strategies when the manufacturer acts as the Stackelberg leader. It is shown that remanufacturing is a good policy to adopt for the whole supply chain, not only for economical beneﬁts but also for environmental sustainability. Optimal decisions of the proposed closed-loop supply chain and its members are also supported by a numerical example. Finally, sensitivity analysis is carried out with respect to key model- parameters.© 2021 CIRP.
Keywords: Closed-loop supply chain | Stackelberg game | Remanufacturing | Pricing | Sustainability | Corporate social responsibility
Offsite construction supply chain strategies for matching affordable rental housing demand: A system dynamics approach
استراتژی های زنجیره تأمین ساخت و ساز خارج از ساختمان برای مطابقت با تقاضای مسکن اجاره ای ارزان قیمت: رویکرد پویایی سیستم-2021
Australian housing affordability is influenced by both housing supply and demand factors. These factors include lengthy construction and planning process. The affordability crisis affects the housing rental sector, which accommodates more than 20 % of Australian household. This research developed a system dynamics model to simulate demography-linked affordable rental housing demand and supply in South East Queensland (SEQ). A Prefabricated Offsite Construction (OSC) housing supply strategy is compared with a traditional building approach (BAU) to investigate the effectiveness of OSC techniques to reduce informational asymmetries during development planning stages to deliver better affordable rental housing is linked to housing needs in SEQ. The model focuses on demographic groups housing demand of one, two- and three-bedroom apartment units and examines how reductions in the development process, through OSC methods, influence the efficiency of Government supported affordable rental housing supply schemes. Overall, the study finds that reduced planning and construction timeframes through OSC methods may improve demography-linked rental housing supply by approximately 6.6 % overall compared to BAU in SEQ. For 1,2- and 3-bedroom apartment demand, OSC strategies are expected to improve supply efficiency by 8.7 %, 8.4 % and 9.2 %, respectively. Optimal OSC strategies were assessed and found that flexibility in development sizes have an outsized positive effect. The study has implications for Government supported affordable rental housing strategies, including the build to rent sector.
Keywords: Offsite construction | Sustainable development | Social resilience | Affordable housing policy | Urban systems modelling | System dynamics | Prefabrication
Bi-objective optimal design of hydrogen and methane supply chains based on Power-to-Gas systems
طراحی بهینه دو هدفه زنجیره های تأمین هیدروژن و متان بر اساس سیستم های نیرو به گاز-2021
This paper presents a methodological design framework for Hydrogen and Methane Supply Chains (HMSC) based on Power-to-Gas (PtG) systems. The novelty of the work is twofold, first considering a specific demand for hydrogen for electromobility in addition to the hydrogen demand required as a feedstock to produce synthetic methane from the methanation process. and performing a bi-objective optimization of the HMSC to provide effective support for the study of deployment scenarios. The approach is based on a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) approach with augmented epsilon-constraint implemented in the GAMS environment according to a multi-period approach (2035-2050) with several available energy sources (wind, PV, hydro, national network) for hydrogen production. Carbon dioxide sources stem mainly from mechanization and gasification processes. The objectives to be minimized simultaneously are the Total Annual Cost and the greenhouse gas emissions related to the whole HMSC over the entire period studied.
KEYWORDS: Power-to-Gas | Methanation | Hydrogen | MILP | Augmented epsilon constraint | GAMS | optimization approach