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Sustainable Strategic Management (GES): Sustainability in small business
مدیریت استراتژیک پایدار (GES): پایداری در مشاغل کوچک-2020
The importance of sustainability for the development of society requires organizations to make complex efforts that allow them to continue with their endless struggle to maintain or create competitiveness and, at the same time, to responsibly take on their leading role in improving the social and environ- mental impacts of human activities. For small companies, the planning and operationalization of efforts required to turn them into sustainable organizations represent an even greater challenge, which adds to the lack of sustainable management models in the specialized literature. The objective of this research was to develop a management model called Sustainable Strategic Management - GES. Well-established conceptual bases such as Strategic Management, Triple Bottom Line, and Balanced Scorecard were used to build an integrated model that allows for small businesses to insert sustainability into their activities in a holistic, feasible, and controllable manner, resulting in competitive advantage. Also, the planning and implementation of GES were tested in a small Brazilian company. In conclusion, a theoretically validated tool was obtained, which will still require evidence to show, in the long run, the effectiveness of its purpose.© 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Sustainable management | Small business | Balanced scorecard | Strategic management
Response and biodiversity of Arctic ecosystems to environmental change: Findings from the ArCS project
پاسخ و تنوع زیستی اکوسیستم های قطب شمال به تغییرات محیطی: یافته های پروژه ArCS-2020
Arctic ecosystems are altered profoundly by climate changes. However, the responses of Arctic marine 30 and terrestrial ecosystems as well as their biodiversity to global warming remain largely unknown. 31 This article provides comprehensive insights into the results and major findings from the Arctic 32 Challenge for Sustainability (ArCS) Project – an Arctic region research program initiated in Japan, 33 which aims to address and advance our understanding of these uncertainties. Marine ecosystem studies 34 have identified several biogeochemical processes that are associated with sea ice decline and 35 northward transport and shift of marine species across multiple trophic levels over the Bering and 36 Chukchi Sea shelves. Studies of the terrestrial ecosystem have identified factors that are important for 37 the understanding of terrestrial biodiversity and ecosystems, including Arctic lakes, under the presence 38 of global warming. Novel fungal species from the Arctic terrestrial ecosystem have also been isolated 39 and described. Overall, these results could contribute to the conservation and sustainable management 40 of the Arctic ecosystem services.
Keywords:43 Bering and Chukchi seas | sea ice | biodiversity | tundra | lake
Hybrid infrastructures, hybrid governance: New evidence from Nairobi (Kenya) on green-blue-grey infrastructure in informal settlements
زیرساخت های ترکیبی ، حاکمیت ترکیبی: شواهد جدید نایروبی (کنیا) در مورد زیرساخت های سبز-آبی خاکستری در شهرک های غیر رسمی-2020
In expanding informal neighborhoods of cities in sub-Saharan Africa, sustainable management of storm and wastewater drainage is fundamental to improving living conditions. Planners debate the optimal combination between "green" or natural infrastructure, traditional "grey" infrastructure, and "blue" infrastructure, which mimics natural solutions using artificial materials. Many advocate for small-scale, niche experiments with these approaches in informal settings, in order to learn how to navigate the intrinsic constraints of space, contested land tenure, participation, and local maintenance. This paper reports the benefits and limitations of implementing and managing local green, blue and grey infrastructure solutions in an urban informal setting. We studied ten completed public space projects that featured urban drainage infrastructure in the informal neighborhood of Kibera, Nairobi. The analysis drew from ten surveys with project designers and seven semi-structured interviews with site managers. The studied spaces featured different combinations of green, grey, and blue drainage infrastructure that have evolved over years of operation, maintenance, and change in the settlement. All projects featured participation in design, mixed design methods, hybrid infrastructure, and community governance models with potential to interact successfully with municipal actors. Results show that involvement in the co-development of small-scale green infrastructure changed peoples valuation, perception, and stewardship of nature-based systems and ecosystem services. These results have implications for the larger scale adoption, integration, and management of urban drainage infrastructure. They also suggest that hybrid systems of infrastructure and governance constitute a resilient approach to incremental and inclusive upgrading.
Keywords: Green infrastructure | Urban drainage | Hybrid infrastructure | Governance | Participation | Climate vulnerability | Informal settlements | Community leadership
Implementation of cleaner production: A ten-year retrospective on benefits and difficulties found
پیاده سازی تولید پاک کننده: یک دوره گذشته ده ساله در مورد مزایا و مشکلات پیدا شده است-2018
Cleaner production is a fast-growing area with numerous important developments seen over the years, which have led to substantial improvements, both in technological, process and organization terms. Yet there is a paucity of literature organizing the body of knowledge on the benefits and difficulties seen in this field. Thus, following a systematic literature review protocol, this paper provides a ten-year state-of the-art analysis on the benefits and difficulties faced in the implementation of cleaner production strategies, and outlines some means via which they may be addressed. Main results point out that companies and governments have been able to successfully reap both tangible and intangible benefits after Cleaner Production implementation as its appeal to attract customers and reap reputation gain increases, for example. However, the results also show a series of difficulties that remain and hinders the widespread advancement of this methodology.
Keywords: Sustainable management ، Cleaner production ، Implementation benefits ، Implementation difficulties ، Systematic literature review
The agenda setting power of news media in framing the future role of tourism in protected areas
دستورالعمل تنظیم قدرت رسانه های خبری در تنظیم نقش آتی گردشگری در مناطق حفاظت شده-2017
This exploratory paper examines the agenda-setting and framing role of news media in the ongoing development of the Draft Sydney Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust Master Plan. The paper will argue that the publication of the Masterplan and ensuing public commentary has drawn into stark focus future challenges in juxtaposing the frames of public use, commercial tourism and scientific/cultural values in the sustainable management of protected areas. Agenda setting and framing theory provides the theoretical foundation for the paper. Guided by critical discourse analysis, the analysis of the paper is supported through the use of Leximancer and Gephi software for visually illustrating the relationship between different framing perspectives. This paper contributes to a fresh understanding of the complex nature of the sustainable management of protected areas in urban spaces.
Keywords: Protected areas | Agenda setting | Leximancer | Co-stakeholder analysis | Media | Gephi
Sustainability in New Zealands quota management system: A convenient story
پایداری در سیستم مدیریت سهمیه New Zealands: یک داستان راحت-2017
New Zealands fisheries management institutions represent a globally recognised story of a successful sustainable management regime, an accolade perceived to be based on its early and comprehensive adoption of a quota management system (QMS). This article questions these assumptions. There are three main strands to the argument. First, that the interpretation of sustainability in the New Zealand QMS disregards the social while simultaneously accentuating a particularly neoliberal economic paradigm in which sustainability is directed towards sustaining the wealth generating potential of quota holdings. Second, while in theory there is a separation of biological and economic conceptions of sustainability in the QMS, these processes are, in fact, deeply intertwined. Third, that the sustainability brand works to legitimise the privatisation and marketization of marine en vironments, to protect the income stream of quota investors, and to effectively incorporate and discipline dissent.
Keywords: Individual Transferable Quota | Sustainability | Māori | Neoliberalism
Tourism in Zanzibar: Incentives for sustainable management of the coastal environment
گردشگری در زنگبار: انگیزه برای مدیریت پایدار محیط زیست ساحلی-2015
Tourism was identified in the late 1980s as a sector with major potential for driving economic development in Zanzibar and has since grown enormously from roughly 19,000 annual visitors in 1985 to well over 200,000 by 2007. Although tourism is now one of the most important sectors of the economy, contributing roughly 25% to GDP, the impact of tourism on poverty reduction and the environment has been decidedly mixed. The rapid expansion of tourist infrastructure on the coast, combined with a population growth rate of over 3%, has put great pressure on coastal areas. In some areas local villages have seen their access to the beach and sea greatly restricted with resulting loss of livelihoods, while relatively little of the economic benefit from tourism has gone to local communities. The coastal and marine environment is seriously degraded due to both human and natural causes. The paper explores the reasons for this, focusing on the role played by the distribution of benefits from tourism and the (dis)incentives this creates for sustainable management, especially among local communities that steward the marine ecosystem. It does this by estimating the incomes (wages, profits and taxes to local government) generated from five major categories of tourism found in Zanzibar, and quantifying the distribution of incomes among five different stakeholder groups. The resulting recommendations are relevant not only for Zanzibar, but for all developing countries that rely on international tourism.
Keywords: Tourism | Zanzibar | Sustainable development | Ecosystem services
Collective symbolic capital and sustainability: Governing fishing communities in a knowledge economy
سرمایه جمعی و پایداری نمادین: جوامع صیادی حاکم در اقتصاد دانش-2015
The sustainable management of shared fishery resources remains a research concern despite the theoretical advances of recent decades. In the context of globalization, governance of fisheries resources cannot be conceived aside from a general restructuring of the value chain and without taking into account the evolution of the standard of living of fishing communities. This paper argues that in knowledge-based economies, value creation is based on proper management of the friction between material and immaterial vectors associated with the activity of fisheries. The case study of the shellfish community of Carril in northwestern Spain is presented and analyzed, setting out potential labeling alternatives to empower local producers. Keywords: Commons Governance Knowledge Labels Symbolic capital Shellfish