Accounting for benefits from natural capital: Applying a novel composite indicator framework to the marine environment
حسابداری برای مزایای سرمایه طبیعی: استفاده از یک چارچوب شاخص کامپوزیت جدید به محیط دریایی-2021
Increased emphasis on the natural capital approach in the UK has led to greater demand for methods that link economic sectors with elements of natural capital, and that can provide evidence for sustainable management of the environment. However, factors describing the supply of benefits, and their links with economic sectors, are not well defined. This study develops a novel framework that investigates how the combination of different forms of capital (natural, financial, social, manufactured or human) provide a potential supply of benefits, and how changes in quality or extent of natural capital affects supply. Factors affecting the delivery of benefits are analysed, and indicators for each factor are selected. Indicators are ranked and weighted, and benefit supply is represented as a novel, composite index. The composite supply index is then linked as an input to a related economic sector. This framework is applied for the first time to four benefits from the marine environment in the UK: seafood, offshore wind energy, wildlife watching and water sports. The approach is compatible with national accounts, natural capital accounts, and established ecosystem service classifications. This study shows how linking eco- nomic sectors with benefits can provide new evidence in support of marine management.
keywords: دریایی | پایتخت طبیعی | فواید | بخش | حساب ها | اقتصاد دریایی | Marine | Natural capital | Benefits | Sectors | Accounts | Marine economy
Management strategies, silvopastoral practices and socioecological drivers in traditional livestock systems in tropical dry forests: An integrated analysis
استراتژیهای مدیریت، شیوههای سیلووپاستورال و محرکهای اجتماعی-اکولوژیکی در سیستمهای دام سنتی در جنگلهای خشک استوایی: یک تحلیل یکپارچه-2021
Understanding traditional livestock management is essential in the design of more sustainable systems, given the forest loss associated to the growing demand for meat. In Latin America, where extensive livestock production is increasing, along with tropical dry forest (TDF) transformation, the role of small holders is critical for designing more sustainable management practices. This study is an integrated socioecological analysis of traditional li- vestock systems in a region with TDF in Mexico. The objectives were to: a) characterise the historical devel- opment and current state of livestock systems and silvopastoral practices, b) define the management strategies and their impacts on forests, and c) identify the regional and local socioecological drivers that influence decision- making processes in livestock and forest management. In-depth interviews were carried out to 32 cattle farmers and analysed using a qualitative-interpretative approach which included multivariate and narrative analyses. Three historical stages (colonization, promotion of livestock and forest conservation) had a strong impact in the development and current state of livestock systems. Access to natural and economic resources and proportion of plant cover (grassland/forest) were essential in defining four groups of management strategies. The main re- gional drivers favouring or restricting production include climate, native vegetation, markets and public policies; at the local scale, socioecological factors, such as water availability, native vegetation, economic assets, local knowledge and their interactions determine heterogeneity in management strategies, decision-making processes and their impacts on forests. Adaptive management of livestock and forests in a context of limited economic resources has allowed the conservation of forest areas and the use of silvopastoral practices with local tree species. The integrated socio-ecological approach and the use of mixed methods allowed a better understanding of drivers and their interrelationships, the local knowledge, objectives and perceptions of farmers in the decision- making processes regarding livestock and forest management. Perspectives of farmers on resource use can contribute to the design of more effective and inclusive policies for sustainable livestock systems in the dry tropics.
keywords: سیستم های اکولوژیکی اجتماعی | دامپروری | شیوه های سیلووپاستوری | جنگل خشک استوایی | Socioecological systems | Livestock management | Silvopastoral practices | Tropical dry forest
Life history, uses, trade and management of Diospyros crassiflora Hiern, the ebony tree of the Central African forests: A state of knowledge
تاریخچه زندگی، استفاده، تجارت و مدیریت Diospyros crassiflora Hiern، درخت آبنوس جنگل های آفریقای مرکزی: وضعیت دانش-2021
The Central African forest ebony, Diospyros crassiflora Hiern, is a small tree native to the moist forests of the Congo Basin. Its appealing black heartwood was one of the first products to be exported from the Gulf of Guinea in the 17th century and is today one of the main sources of ebony globally. Like for other ebony species, its commercial exploitation raises serious questions about the long-term sustainability of its trade and the viability of its populations, but the dots are yet to be joined. An examination of the interface between biology, trade, and ecology is crucial to identify the interrelated factors that could influence the potential success of its conservation. This paper reviews scientific and grey literature, forest inventories, herbarium and trade data to provide a critical assessment of the main threats to D. crassiflora populations and gaps in the current state of knowledge. It is shown here that the species is widespread but never abundant. In the longer term the species is threatened by forest conversion to agriculture and widespread hunting of large mammals on which the species rely for seed dispersal. It is currently selectively logged principally to make musical instruments and for the hongmu Chinese market, for which only one alternative black wood, the near-threatened Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill. et Perr., is commercially available. Trade statistics suggest that exports from source countries where the species is cut under the forest concession system are relatively low compared to countries like Cameroon which has seen a recent increase in exports, and where ebony is exploited without forest management plans. Logging remains a concern where the exploitation and trade of D. crassiflora are managed in response to demand rather than informed by current stock levels, growth rate and the particular reproductive biology of this species. The recent successes of private sector initiatives to ensure the long-term supply of ebony in Cameroon are promising, but would require long-term and large-scale commitments involving direct and indirect stakeholders to develop programs for the plantation and policies for the sustainable management of the species.
keywords: آبنوس | شکار | جنگل زدایی | تجارت | جنگل مرطوب آفریقا | گیتار | Ebony | Hunting | Deforestation | Trade | African moist forest | Guitar | CITES
A framework for sustainable management of the platform service supply chain: An empirical study of the logistics sector in China
چارچوبی برای مدیریت پایدار زنجیره تامین خدمات بستر های نرم افزاری: یک مطالعه تجربی از بخش تدارکات در چین-2021
Platforms have become an effective means of innovation in the logistics sector. However, not all platform-based business models become a success. This research investigates how a platform strategy can lead to a sustainable managed platform service supply chain. Based on analysis of data collected within the logistics sectors in China, the research results propose a structural mapping of a platform service supply chain, which differs from the traditional service supply chain structure. This research develops a sustainable management framework for the platform service supply chain, including three key elements: mutual facilitation between platform and business ecosystem; strategic alignment among the structural elements; and a sustainable element including value co- creation, co-opetition and dynamic configuration. The paper also provides a summary of practical implications to guide practitioners in building a successful platform service supply chain and enacting effective management strategies.
Keywords: Platform | Service | Supply chain | Business ecosystem | Sustainable management
An overview of longshore sediment transport on the Brazilian coast✩
مروری بر حمل و نقل رسوب longshore در سواحل برزیل-2020
The present study investigates the wave behavior and the longshore sediment transport rate on the Brazilian continental shelf, using a computational model and four different formulations, for the period between 1979–2015. The average significant wave height is substantially variable along the study region, with the largest values occurring in southern Brazil, whereas the smaller values occur in northern Brazil. The longshore sediment transport rates are well within the range of values presented in previous works and indicate which method performs best in estimating annual mean rates of sediment transport. The highest sediment transport rates were found in the sector situated within the northern coast of the Bahia state and the Alagoas state, reaching 460 000 m3 year−1. On the other hand, the opposite was found between the Rio de Janeiro and southern Bahia coast, where the smallest transport rates occurred with a global average of 109 000 m3 year−1. Additionally, it is important to emphasize that small variations in the wave incidence angle may cause significant changes in the longshore drift of sediments, favoring the occurrence of zones of convergence and divergence along the coast. The novel results presented for the entire Brazilian shore contribute to the literature related to wave and sediment transport along the Brazilian coast and can be useful for future engineering projects that consider the sustainable management of the coastal zone.
Keywords: Numerical modeling | TOMAWAC | CERC | Kamphuis | Longshore sediment transport | Coastal zone
Zero-net energy management for the monitoring and control of dynamically-partitioned smart water systems
مدیریت انرژی صفر خالص برای نظارت و کنترل سیستم های اب هوشمند تقسیم شده -2020
The optimal and sustainable management of water distribution systems still represent an arduous task. In many instances, especially in aging water net-works, pressure management is imperative for reducing breakages and leakages. Therefore, optimal District Metered Areas represent an effective solution to decreasing the overall energy input without performance compromise. Within this context, this paper proposes a novel adaptive management framework for water distribution systems by reconfiguring the original network layout into (dynamic) district metered areas. It utilises a multiscale clustering algorithm to schedule district aggregation/desegregation, whilst delivering energy and supply management goals. The resulting framework was tested in a water utility network for the simultaneously production of energy during the day (by means of the installation of micro-hydropower systems) and for the reduction of water leakage during the night. From computational viewpoint, this was found to significantly reduce the time and complexity during the clustering and the dividing phase. In addition, in this case, a recovered energy potential of 19 MWh per year and leakage reduction of up to 16% was found. The addition of pump-as-turbines was also found to reduce investment and maintenance costs, giving improved reliability to the monitoring stations. The financial analyses to define the optimal period in which to invest also showed the economic feasibility of the proposed solution, which assures, in the analysed case study, a positive annual net income in just five years. This study demonstrates that the combined optimisation, energy recovery and creation of optimized multiple-task district stations lead to an efficient, resilient, sustainable, and low-cost management strategy for water distribution networks.
Keywords: Water distribution systems | Micro-hydropower systems | Sustainable and smart cities | Water-energy nexus | Water leakage reduction | Financial return-on-investment
A model for big spatial rural data infrastructure in Turkey: Sensor-driven and integrative approach
یک مدل برای زیرساخت های داده های بزرگ فضایی روستایی در ترکیه: رویکرد حسگر محور و یکپارچه-2020
A Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) enables the effective spatial data flow between providers and users for their prospective land use analyses. The need for an SDI providing soil and land use inventories is crucial in order to optimize sustainable management of agricultural, meadow and forest lands. In an SDI where datasets are static, it is not possible to make quick decisions about land use. Therefore, SDIs must be enhanced with online data flow and the capabilities to store big volumes of data. This necessity brings the concepts of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Big Data (BD) into the discussion. Turkey needs to establish an SDI to monitor and manage its rural lands. Even though Turkish decision-makers and scientists have constructed a solid national SDI standardization, a conceptual model for rural areas has not been developed yet. In accordance with the international agreements, this model should adopt the INSPIRE Directive and Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS) standards. In order to manage rural lands in Turkey, there are several legislations which characterize the land use planning, land classification and restrictions. Especially, the Soil Protection and Land Use Law (SPLUL) enforces to use a lot and a variety of land use parameters that should be available in a big rural SDI. Moreover, this model should be enhanced with IoT, which enables to use of smart sensors to collect data for monitoring natural occurrences and other parameters that may help to classify lands. This study focuses on a conceptual model of a Turkish big rural SDI design that combines the sensor usage and attribute datasets for all sorts of rural lands. The article initially reviews Turkish rural reforms, current enterprises to a national SDI and sensor-driven agricultural monitoring. The suggested model integrates rural land use types, such as agricultural lands, meadowlands and forest lands. During the design process, available data sets and current legislation for Turkish rural lands are taken into consideration. This schema is associated with food security databases (organic and good farming practices), non-agricultural land use applications and local/ European subsidies in order to monitor the agricultural parcels on which these practices are implemented. To provide a standard visualization of this conceptual schema, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) class diagrams are used and a supplementary data dictionary is prepared to make clear definitions of the attributes, data types and code lists used in the model. This conceptual model supports the LPIS, ISO 19156 International Standard (Geographic Information: Observations and Measurements) catalogue and INSPIRE data theme specifications due to the fact that Turkey is negotiating the accession to EU; however, it also provides a local understanding that enables to manage rural lands holistically for sustainable development goals. It suggests an expansion for the sensor variety of Turkish agricultural monitoring project (TARBIL) and it specifies a rural theme for Turkish National SDI (TUCBS).
Keywords: Spatial data infrastructures | Big data | Internet of things | Rural land use | INSPIRE | LPIS
Organizational hypocrisy in business schools with sustainability commitments: The drivers of talk-action inconsistency
ریاکاری سازمانی در مدارس بازرگانی با تعهدات پایداری: محرک های ناسازگاری گفتگو و عمل-2020
Business schools are criticized for not walking-the-talk given their sustainability rhetoric and the expectation they educate future managers to act responsibly, balancing economic aims with the social and environmental impacts of business operations. While hypocrisy has long been part of the debate, few studies have systematically analysed organizational hypocrisy in business schools which have made commitments to deliver sustainable management education. We address this gap by studying the extent of sustainability teaching or ‘action’ in MBA programs at UK business schools with sustainability ‘talk’ and strategic ‘decisions’ to implement sustainability. We contribute to organizational hypocrisy theory by developing a framework of organizational and lower-level factors which drive inadvertent organizational hypocrisy. Using fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) we examine interviews with 23 MBA directors to understand how these factors, in combination, explain an inadvertent kind of organizational hypocrisy. Our results emphasise the importance of sustainability cap- ability in delivering on sustainability commitments.
Keywords: Organized hypocrisy | Sustainability | Business schools | Qualitative comparative analysis
A selective disassembly multi-objective optimization approach for adaptive reuse of building components
روش بهینه سازی چند منظوره جداسازی انتخابی برای استفاده مجدد از سازه از اجزای ساختمان-2020
Adaptive reuse of buildings plays a key role in the transition from a resource-based economy and towards a Circular Economy (CE) in the construction industry. Adaptive reuse has the potential to maximize the residual utility and value of existing assets through green design methods such as selective disassembly planning. Studies in the field of selective disassembly are scarce and there is no evidence of established methodologies for the optimization of the environmental and financial benefits. A multi-objective analysis is key to obtaining several effective selective disassembly plans for the adaptive reuse of an existing asset through the combination of different deconstruction methods. The analysis is carried out in terms of the physical, environmental, and economic constraints of the deconstruction methods per building component. The Sequential Disassembly Planning for Buildings (SDPB) method is used in order to generate the optimized disassembly plans for retrieving target components. At the end, a weighted multi-objective optimization analysis is incorporated to generate the set of noninferior solutions that minimizes environmental impacts and building cost. The results show that different complete disassembly plans exist for all the possible combinations. The possible combinations are driven by the deconstruction methods per component, as well as the dismantling interdependence. The method described in this study can be used to improve the project outcomes according to specific goals and constraints (e.g. environmental, economic, technical). The results of this study improve the decision-making process for adaptive reuse building projects by adding comprehensive quantitative analysis towards sustainable management and conservation of resources.
Keywords: Circular economy | Adaptive reuse | Multi-objective optimization | Selective disassembly planning | Green design | Building components reuse
Soil quality should be accurate evaluated at the beginning of lifecycle after land consolidation for eco-sustainable development on the Loess Plateau
ارزیابی کیفیت خاک در ابتدای چرخه حیات پس از ادغام اراضی برای توسعه سازگار با محیط زیست در فلات لس -2020
Evaluating farmland soil quality and zoning the obstacle factors regions were essential to enhance the productiveness of cultivated land and adopt sustainable management practices after land reclamation. The land consolidation project was initiated to reclaim gullies of the Loess Plateau and return them to farmland. However, soil quality and eco-sustainable improvement strategies of the reclaimed farmland were still unknown. The primary objective of this research was to assess soil quality, select a suitable evaluation method and provide precise amendment recommendations for this regions, selecting the reclaimed farmland of Yan’an city as a case. Indictor values of SOM, CEC, nitrogen, phosphorus, avail -Mn and -Zn on reclaimed farmland were considered at low level and soil quality was generally poor. A minimum data set evaluation method selecting by the Norm values is recommended for delineating poor quality farmland, with the threshold values of soil quality at 0.92. The main limiting factors for reclaimed farmland were identified as SOM, CEC, nitrogen, NaHCO3-P, and enzyme activities. SOM and nitrogen content, CEC and clay percentage, and NaHCO3-P concentration were the main limiting factors of soil quality on the all Yan’an regions, northern and southern areas, respectively, indicating the soil texture should be improved in the arid areas while the phosphate fertilizer should be accurately applied in the semi-arid regions. Those approaches will identify areas needing more intense management and improve utilization of applied amendments. We emphasize the spatial distribution of limiting factors was uneven on the Loess Plateau regions and the particular attention should be paid on specialized soil quality evaluation of targeted regions for precise amendment and utilization. The results of this study are important at the practices for avoiding the traditional unsustainable and inaccurately fertilization strategy.
Keywords: Land consolidation | Soil quality index | Land use | Life cycle assessment | Loess plateau