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نتیجه جستجو - System

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 3477
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1 Data Mining Strategies for Real-Time Control in New York City
استراتژی داده کاوی برای کنترل زمان واقعی در شهر نیویورک-2105
The Data Mining System (DMS) at New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) mainly consists of four database systems for traffic and pedestrian/bicycle volumes, crash data, and signal timing plans as well as the Midtown in Motion (MIM) systems which are used as part of the NYCDOT Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) infrastructure. These database and control systems are operated by different units at NYCDOT as an independent database or operation system. New York City experiences heavy traffic volumes, pedestrians and cyclists in each Central Business District (CBD) area and along key arterial systems. There are consistent and urgent needs in New York City for real-time control to improve mobility and safety for all users of the street networks, and to provide a timely response and management of random incidents. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an integrated DMS for effective real-time control and active transportation management (ATM) in New York City. This paper will present new strategies for New York City suggesting the development of efficient and cost-effective DMS, involving: 1) use of new technology applications such as tablets and smartphone with Global Positioning System (GPS) and wireless communication features for data collection and reduction; 2) interface development among existing database and control systems; and 3) integrated DMS deployment with macroscopic and mesoscopic simulation models in Manhattan. This study paper also suggests a complete data mining process for real-time control with traditional static data, current real timing data from loop detectors, microwave sensors, and video cameras, and new real-time data using the GPS data. GPS data, including using taxi and bus GPS information, and smartphone applications can be obtained in all weather conditions and during anytime of the day. GPS data and smartphone application in NYCDOT DMS is discussed herein as a new concept. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Elhadi M. Shakshu Keywords: Data Mining System (DMS), New York City, real-time control, active transportation management (ATM), GPS data
مقاله انگلیسی
2 Institutional entrepreneurship in the platform economy: How Uber tried (and failed) to change the Dutch taxi law
رآفرینی نهادی در اقتصاد پلتفرم: چگونه Uber تلاش کرد (و نتوانست) قانون تاکسی هلند را تغییر دهد-2019
Platform innovations like Uber and Airbnb allow peers to transact outside established market institutions. From an institutional perspective, platform companies follow a reverse innovation process compared to innovation within traditional regulatory systems: they first launch their online platform and ask for government permission only later. We analyze the emergence of Uber as an institutional entrepreneur in The Netherlands and the strategies it employed in a failed attempt to get its UberPop service legalized through changes in Dutch taxi law. We conclude that Uber’s failure to change the Dutch taxi law stemmed from the difficulty to leverage pragmatic legitimacy among users into favorable regulatory changes in a highly institutionalized regime, because Uber’s institutional work strategies were not aligned.
Keywords: Platform economy | Uber | Ridesourcing | Institutional change | Legitimacy | Regulation
مقاله انگلیسی
3 Physical metallurgy-guided machine learning and artificial intelligent design of ultrahigh-strength stainless steel
یادگیری ماشین با هدایت متالورژی فیزیکی و طراحی هوشمند مصنوعی از فولاد ضد زنگ قوی-2019
With the development of the materials genome philosophy and data mining methodologies, machine learning (ML) has been widely applied for discovering new materials in various systems including highend steels with improved performance. Although recently, some attempts have been made to incorporate physical features in the ML process, its effects have not been demonstrated and systematically analysed nor experimentally validated with prototype alloys. To address this issue, a physical metallurgy (PM) -guided ML model was developed, wherein intermediate parameters were generated based on original inputs and PM principles, e.g., equilibrium volume fraction (Vf) and driving force (Df) for precipitation, and these were added to the original dataset vectors as extra dimensions to participate in and guide the ML process. As a result, the ML process becomes more robust when dealing with small datasets by improving the data quality and enriching data information. Therefore, a new material design method is proposed combining PM-guided ML regression, ML classifier and a genetic algorithm (GA). The model was successfully applied to the design of advanced ultrahigh-strength stainless steels using only a small database extracted from the literature. The proposed prototype alloy with a leaner chemistry but better mechanical properties has been produced experimentally and an excellent agreement was obtained for the predicted optimal parameter settings and the final properties. In addition, the present work also clearly demonstrated that implementation of PM parameters can improve the design accuracy and efficiency by eliminating intermediate solutions not obeying PM principles in the ML process. Furthermore, various important factors influencing the generalizability of the ML model are discussed in detail.
Keywords: Alloy design | Machine learning | Physical metallurgy | Small sample problem | Stainless steel
مقاله انگلیسی
4 No luck for moral luck
بدون شانس برای شانس اخلاقی-2019
Moral philosophers and psychologists often assume that people judge morally lucky and morally unlucky agents differently, an assumption that stands at the heart of the Puzzle of Moral Luck. We examine whether the asymmetry is found for reflective intuitions regarding wrongness, blame, permissibility, and punishment judg- ments, whether people’s concrete, case-based judgments align with their explicit, abstract principles regarding moral luck, and what psychological mechanisms might drive the effect. Our experiments produce three findings: First, in within-subjects experiments favorable to reflective deliberation, the vast majority of people judge a lucky and an unlucky agent as equally blameworthy, and their actions as equally wrong and permissible. The philosophical Puzzle of Moral Luck, and the challenge to the very possibility of systematic ethics it is frequently taken to engender, thus simply do not arise. Second, punishment judgments are significantly more outcome- dependent than wrongness, blame, and permissibility judgments. While this constitutes evidence in favor of current Dual Process Theories of moral judgment, the latter need to be qualified: punishment and blame judgments do not seem to be driven by the same process, as is commonly argued in the literature. Third, in between-subjects experiments, outcome has an effect on all four types of moral judgments. This effect is mediated by negligence ascriptions and can ultimately be explained as due to differing probability ascriptions across cases.
Keywords: Moral luck | Moral judgment | Outcome effect | Dual process theory of moral judgment | Hindsight bias
مقاله انگلیسی
5 First-principles and Machine Learning Predictions of Elasticity in Severely Lattice-distorted High-Entropy Alloys with Experimental Validation
اصول اول و پیش بینی یادگیری ماشین از الاستیسیته در آلیاژهای آنتروپی با تحریف شدید شبکه با استفاده از اعتبار سنجی تجربی-2019
Stiffness usually increases with the lattice-distortion-induced strain, as observed in many nanostructures. Partly due to the size differences in the component elements, severe lattice distortion naturally exists in high entropy alloys (HEAs). The single-phase face-centered-cubic (FCC) Al0.3CoCrFeNi HEA, which has large size differences among its constituent elements, is an ideal system to study the relationship between the elastic properties and lattice distortion using a combined experimental and computational approach based on in-situ neutron-diffraction (ND) characterizations, and first-principles calculations. Analysis of the interatomic distance distributions from calculations of optimized special quasi random structure (SQS) found that the HEA has a high degree of lattice distortion. When the lattice distortion is explicitly considered, elastic properties calculated using SQS are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements for the HEA. The calculated elastic constant values are within 5% of the ND measurements. A comparison of calculations from the optimized SQS and the SQS with ideal lattice sites indicate that the lattice distortion results in the reduced stiffness. The optimized SQS has a bulk modulus of 177 GPa compared to the ideal lattice SQS with a bulk modulus of 194 GPa. Machine learning (ML) modeling is also implemented to explore the use of fast, and computationally efficient models for predicting the elastic moduli of HEAs. ML models trained on a large dataset of inorganic structures are shown to make accurate predictions of elastic properties for the HEA. The ML models also demonstrate the dependence of bulk and shear moduli on several material features which can act as guides for tuning elastic properties in HEAs.
Keywords: First-principles calculation | Elastic constants | in situ tension test | Neutron diffraction | Machine learning
مقاله انگلیسی
6 Promoting sustainable energy: Does institutional entrepreneurship help?
ارتقاء انرژی پایدار: آیا کارآفرینی نهادی به شما کمک می کند؟-2019
Institutional entrepreneurship research has described and conceptualized dramatic cases of successful institu- tional change. We know less about whether it can help people trying to change institutions, for example, struggling to change the energy system. Do concepts from the institutional entrepreneurship literature offer sustainable energy practitioners insights on the political aspects of their work? And vice-versa: do practitioners have useful insights on the potential and limits of agency in institutional change? The present study contributes to these questions through collaborative inquiry together with government-affiliated organizations with a mission to promote sustainable energy. The results suggest that concepts from the institutional entrepreneurship literature do serve to make practitioners’ implicit competencies explicit and hence a legitimate subject for or- ganizational development and joint learning about the political aspects of energy systems change. We conclude that institutional entrepreneurship appears to require a form of organizing that combines environmental scan- ning, grand strategy and everyday tactical moves on the ground.
Keywords: Institutional entrepreneurship | Sustainable energy | Practitioner | Collaborative inquiry
مقاله انگلیسی
7 بازیابی انتخابی کبالت از جریان های ثانویه پس از فرآوری باتری های NIMH با استفاده از سیانکس 301
سال انتشار: 2019 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 8 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 29
کبالت به عنوان یک ماده خام اساسی برای اتحادیه اروپا تلقی می شود. از آنجاییکه تامین محدودی دارد تلاشهای قابل توجهی باید برای توسعه روشهای ماندگار جهت بازیافت کبالت از منابع جایگزین صورت گیرد. فرآوری هیدرومتالورژیکی باتری های مصرف شده NiMH یک جریان متمرکزی حاوی کبالت (8/11 گرم بر لیتر) و ناخالصی ها (3/2 گرم بر لیتر نیکل، 2/0 گرم بر لیتر آلومینیوم، 3/9 گرم بر لیتر منگنز و 6/4 گرم بر لیتر عناصر کمیاب زمین) در بستر اسید نیتریک تولید می کند. در این مطالعه، جداسازی انتخابی کبالت از سایر یونهای موجود بررسی شد. کبالت به صورت انتخابی از آلومینیوم، منگنز و عناصر کمیاب زمین با استفاده از یک مولار سیانکس 301 در کروسن جداسازی شد. از رفتار سنتیکی متفاوت درطی استخراج با سیانکس 301 برای جداسازی یونهای کبالت و نیکل به صورت انتخابی استفاده شد. آنتالپی محاسبه شده برای فرآیند استخراج کبالت برابر است با – 11.37 ± 0.5 kJ/ که بیانگر این است که استخراج کبالت در سیستم بررسی شده یک واکنش گرمازا می باشد. از تاثیر دما روی استخراج کبالت برای دستیابی به انتخابی بودن بهتر برای نیکل استفاده شد. کبالت ازطریق زدایش انتخابی با 4 مولار اسید کلریدریک در دمای محیط بازیافت شد. خلوص نهایی محصول زدایش برابر با 9/99 درصد بود.
مقاله ترجمه شده
8 سیستم پشتیبانی از تصمیم برای خطرات و اقدامات متقابل ایمنی جاده ای اروپا
سال انتشار: 2019 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 8 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 32
سیستم پشتیبانی از تصمیم درباره ایمنی جاده ای اروپا (roadsafety-dss.eu) یک سیستم نوآورانه است که شواهد و مدارک دسترس پذیری را درباره گستره وسیعی از خطرات جاده ای و اقدامات متقابل امکانپذیر فراهم می کند. این مقاله پایه و اساس علمی سیستم پشتیبانی از تصمیم را توصیف می کند. ساختار موجود در سیستم پشتیبانی از تصمیم شامل (1) یک طبقه بندی که به شناسایی عوامل خطر و اقدامات متقابل آن می پردازد و آنها را به همدیگر مرتبط می کند، (2) یک مجموعه ای از مطالعات، و (3) خلاصه هایی که تاثیرات تخمین زده شده در منابع علمی را برای هر عامل و سنجه خطر خلاصه بندی می کنند و (4) یک ابزار ارزیابی کارآمدی اقتصادی (محاسبه گر E3) می شود. سیستم پشتیبانی از تصمیم در یک ابزار نوین مبتنی بر وب با فصل مشترک بسیار انسانی اجرا می شود که به کاربران اجازه می دهد تا مرور اجمالی سریعی داشته باشند یا نتایج هر مطالعه را برطبق نیازهای مخصوص آنها عمیق تر بررسی کنند.
کلیدواژه ها: اقدامات متقابل ایمنی جاده | خطرات جاده ای | سودمندی | سیستم آنلاین | مرور | هزینه – سود
مقاله ترجمه شده
9 Mining for Mother Earth: Governmentalities, sacred waters and nature’s rights in Ecuador
کاوش برای مادر زمین: دولت ها ، آب های مقدس و حقوق طبیعت در اکوادور-2019
Getting public opinion to see ‘mining’ and ‘Nature’s Rights’ as non-contradictory and even equivalent and harmonious, calls for far-reaching power strategies. Nature was entitled to rights by Ecuador’s Constitution at about the same time that the Government began promoting mining as central to Ecuador’s future. Building this equivalence to make ‘mining mean nature’, and materialize large-scale mining in the Quimsacocha páramo wetlands, the State and its institutions tested new tactics to manage territory, coined new imaginaries and subjectivities, and limited indigenous/rural political participation. In response, communities started to dispute these governmentality strategies through political practices that framed new meanings of territory and identity. They use formal political and legal arenas but, above all, their day-to-day practices. This article analyzes forms of power and counter-power in the Quimsacocha páramo mining conflict, through the four different, inter-related ‘arts of government’ (Foucault, 2008) and mutual strategies by promoters and detractors of extractive industry who, in apparent paradox, both appeal to Nature’s Rights. We conclude that using Nature’s Rights to promote mega-mining manifests the limitations of social and environmental rights recognition under neoliberal governance, and the tensions inherent in Nature’s Rights themselves. However, anti-extraction struggles like Quimsacocha’s critically make visible as well as challenge the development model and economic system that is implicit in the debate over Nature’s Rights, inviting us to re-think the socio-natural order and foster more just, equitable alternatives.
Keywords: Mining | Cultural politics | Governmentality | Rights of nature | Ecuador
مقاله انگلیسی
10 Inclusiveness by design? Reviewing sustainable electricity access and entrepreneurship from a gender perspective
شمول طراحی شده توسط؟ بررسی دسترسی پایدار به برق و کارآفرینی از منظر جنسیت-2019
There is a substantial literature analysing the role of electricity as a catalyst for economic development. However, there are significant knowledge gaps in whether such systems are or can indeed be designed in a gender sensitive way to promote equal opportunity for socially inclusive entrepreneurship at the local level. We make three main contributions with this paper. First, we carry out a literature review to unpack the genderelectricity- entrepreneurship nexus by identifying the agenda of the gender-energy and gender-entrepreneurship literature respectively and how they intersect and understand gender over time. Second, we synthesise key factors identified as hindering and driving empowerment in relation to electricity and entrepreneurship and identify the weaknesses of the respective literature. Third, we outline the contours of the conceptual intersection and develop a framework which shows how electricity systems can be designed to become favourable and economically empowering for both men and women. Furthermore, we demonstrate how local value chains can benefit from this electric inclusiveness. Finally, with our framework, we develop recommendations for strategic action and identify points of intervention in policy, planning, design and operation of electricity systems.
Keywords: Gender and energy | Gender and entrepreneurship | Electricity access | Women’s empowerment
مقاله انگلیسی
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