Cigarette excise taxes, clean indoor air laws, and use of smoking cessation treatments: A mediation analysis
مالیات های غیر مستقیم بر روی سیگار ، قوانین هوای داخل تمیز ، و استفاده از درمان ترک سیگار: یک تحلیل واسطه ای-2020
The role of smoking cessation treatments in the link between clean indoor air laws and cigarette taxes with smoking cessation is not known. This study examined whether the use of smoking cessation treatments mediates the association between clean indoor air laws and cigarette excise taxes, on the one hand, and recent smoking cessation, on the other hand. Using data on 62,165 adult participants in the 2003 and 2010–2011 Current Population Survey-Tobacco Use Supplement who reported smoking cigarettes in the past year, we employed structural equation models to quantify the degree to which smoking cessation treatments (prescription medications, nicotine replacement therapy, counseling/support groups, quitlines, and internet-based resources) mediate the association between clean indoor air laws, cigarette excise taxes and recent smoking cessation. Recent smoking cessation was associated with clean indoor air laws in 2003 and with both clean indoor air laws and excise taxes in 2010–2011. Smoking cessation treatments explained between 29% to 39% of the effect of clean indoor air laws and taxes on recent smoking cessation. While clean indoor air laws remained significantly associated with the recent smoking cessation over the first decade of the 2000s, excise taxes gained a more prominent role in later years of that decade. The influence of these policies was partly mediated through the use of smoking cessation treatments, underscoring the importance of policies that make these treatments more widely available.
Influence of institutional economics on firm birth and death: A comparative analysis of hospitality and other industries
تأثیر اقتصاد نهادی بر تولد و مرگ محکم: یک تحلیل مقایسه ای از مهمان نوازی و سایر صنایع-2020
This paper investigates how public policies, such as taxes and regulations inﬂuence ﬁrm formation (birth) and closure (death) in the hospitality and other industries in the United States (US), using an institutional economics approach and the dimensions of the Economic Freedom of North America (EFNA) index. The literature has been scant when it comes to examining the eﬀects of policies of formal institutions on ﬁrms’ birth and death in the hospitality industry, and whether these eﬀects in hospitality diﬀer from those of other sectors. The study uses panel data from government sources and the EFNA dimensions and applies cross-sectional dependence and unit root tests, followed by a panel generalized least square approach for the analysis. Our ﬁndings show that components of economic freedom have varying eﬀects on ﬁrms’ birth and death. The study provides practical contributions for policymakers and managers by improving the understanding of ﬁrm births and deaths in the US.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship | Hospitality industry | Economic | freedom | Institutional economics | Firm birth and death | Public policies
A strategic and global manufacturing capacity management optimisation model: A Scenario-based multi-stage stochastic programming approach
یک مدل بهینه سازی مدیریت تولید استراتژیک و جهانی: یک رویکرد برنامه نویسی تصادفی چند مرحله ای مبتنی بر سناریو-2020
Large-scale multinational manufacturing firms often require a significant investment in production capacity and extensive management efforts in strategic planning in an uncertain business environment. In this research we first discuss what decision terms and boundary conditions a holistic capacity management model for the manufacturing industry must contain. To better understand how these decision terms and constraints have been employed by the recent model developers in the area of capacity and resource management modelling for manufacturing, 69 optimisation-based (deterministic and stochastic) models have been carefully selected from 2000 to 2018 for a brief comparative analysis. The results of this comparison shows although applying uncertainty into capacity modelling (in stochastic form) has received a greater deal of attention most recently (since 2010), the existing stochastic models are yet very simplistic, and not all the strategic terms have been employed in the current model developments in the field. This lack of a holistic approach although is evident in deterministic models too, the existing stochastic counterparts proved to include much less decision terms and inclusive constraints, which limits them to a limited applications and may cause sub-optimal solutions. Employing this set of holistic decision terms and boundary conditions, this work develops a scenario-based multi-stage stochastic capacity management model, which is capable of modelling different strategic terms such as capacity level management (slight, medium and large capacity volume adjustment to increase/decrease capacity), location/relocation decisions, merge/decomposition options, and product management (R&D, new product launch, productto-plant and product-to-market allocation, and product phase-out management). Possibility matrix, production rates, different financial terms and international taxes, inflation rates, machinery depreciation, investment lead-time and product cycle-time are also embedded in the model in order to make it more practical, realistic and sensitive to strategic decisions and scenarios. A step-by-step open-box validation has been followed while designing the model and a holistic black-box validation plan has been designed and employed to widely validate the model. The model then has been verified by deploying a real-scaled case of Toyota Motors UK (TMUK) decision of mothballing one of their production lines in the UK after the global recession in 2010.
Keywords: Stochastic programming | Optimisation modelling | Capacity management | Manufacturing
Trade policy changes, tax evasion and Benford’s law
تغییر سیاست تجارت ، فرار مالیاتی و قانون بنفورد-2020
This paper draws attention to import duty evasion as a margin through which firms adjust to changes in trade policy. This margin is different from the other forms of adjustment, as it can be employed very fast and thus it may constitute the initial reaction to the shock before a slower adjustment through the other channels takes place. The study also proposes a new method of detecting tax evasion in international trade, based on deviations from Benford’s law. It applies the method in the context of an unexpected policy change in Turkey that increased the cost of import financing. The results are consistent with an immediate increase in tax evasion in the affected import flows, which dies down a year later. A standard approach to detecting tariff evasion, based on “missing trade”, confirms these conclusions.
Keywords: Tax evasion | Trade financing | Border taxes | Benford’s law
Tax measures promoting cooperatives: a fiscal driver in the context of the sustainable development agenda
اقدامات مالیاتی برای ارتقا تعاونی ها: محرک مالی در متن برنامه توسعه پایدار-2020
The social economy (SE) is becoming increasingly present in the Spanish business network. Its special characteristics make it attractive for the development of economic activities, since they are respectful of the environment and they promote the creation of stable and quality employment, even in economically degraded areas or for groups with labour market integration problems. These characteristics, moreover, are particularly important for the consolidation of a new business network that combines economic growth and sustainability, in the context of the commitments undertaken in the 2030 Agenda for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Cooperatives are the most common SE business model, to the extent that their study comprises an important part of the Spanish economy. The peculiarities of this legal formula, the aids for its constitution and their tax benefits provide important incentives for the constitution of such entities. The aim of this paper is to study the fiscal framework of cooperatives in Spain within the European framework, to determine the extent to which it favours the development of this business model and to identify the bases for improvement that can foster this entrepreneurial model. The analysis of the fiscal data available confirms that the tax advantages for cooperatives, as well as the need to update fiscal policies to the current economic context, have diluted over time. Finally, the need to extend to cooperatives some of the tax benefits designed for other business models is pointed out.
Keywords: Cooperative enterprises | Taxes | Fiscal benefits | Entrepreneurship | Sustainability
Taxation and executive compensation: Evidence from stock options
مالیات و غرامت اجرایی: شواهدی از گزینه های بورس-2018
Understanding the effects of taxes on executive compensation provides insight into the process determining this compensation and is a key input to top income tax rate policy. A 2010 tax reform in Canada, which greatly increased the effective tax rate on stock option compensation for a subset of firms, provides a natural experiment with which to address this issue. Difference-in-differences estimates suggest that this tax increase resulted in an immediate reduction in both stock option grants and the fraction of total compensation made up of stock options with limited, if any, substitution towards other components of compensation.
keywords: Executive compensation |Taxation |Stock options
The effect of tax position and personal norms: An analysis of taxpayer compliance decisions using paper and software
تاثیر موقعیت مالیاتی و هنجارهای فردی: یک تحلیل روی تصمیمات پذیرش پرداخت کننده مالیات با استفاده از کاغذ و نرم افزار-2018
Tax Software has become the predominant format used to prepare and file taxes in the U.S. Compared to filing paper returns, tax software significantly changes the reporting environment. For example, tax software uses tax position indicators that update a taxpayers tax position (i.e. whether they will receive a refund or owe additional tax) in real time as they enter their tax information. This study uses an experiment to investigate how tax compliance decisions made when using tax software with a tax position indicator differ from those made when using paper forms. In addition, we investigate the extent to which taxpayer attitudes (personal norms) impact taxpayer compliance decisions in these two environments (paper v. software). We find that taxpayers using software with a tax position indicator report more (less) cash revenue depending on their “tax due” (“refund”) position, which has both beneficial and negative effects on tax compliance. In addition, we find that taxpayers are strongly influenced by their personal norms in their reporting decisions.
keywords: Tax software |Tax compliance |Tax position |Prospect theory |Personal norms
A square deal? Mining costs, mining royalties and local government in New South Wales, Australia
معامله مربع؟ هزینه های معدن، حق امتیاز معدن و دولت محلی در نیو ساوت ولز، استرالیا-2018
Mining operations are often controversial since they can impose significant external costs on the local munici palities and local inhabitants. Under current legislative arrangements in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, local governments are constrained from recouping costs directly from mines by means of increased property taxes on mines due to state-wide limitations on tax increases – known colloquially as the ‘rate-cap’. Moreover, mining royalties are paid directly to the NSW government and not to affected councils. In this paper, set against the background of mining activities in NSW, we estimate the magnitude of costs imposed by mining operations on rural and regional local authorities. We then offer alternative public policy solutions which would enable affected municipalities to recoup some or all of the cost burden placed on them by mining operations in their respective local government areas.
Keywords: Mining costs ، Local government ، Municipal revenue ، Property taxes
Corporate tax incentives and capital structure: New evidence from UK firm-level tax returns
انگیزه های مالیات شرکتی و ساختار سرمایه ای: شواهد جدیدی از بازگشت های مالیات سطح شرکتی انگلیس-2018
We investigate how companies’ capital structure is affected by corporate income taxes using confidential company-level tax returns for a large sample of UK firms. Exploiting variation in companies’ marginal tax rates, we find a positive and substantial long-run tax effect on leverage. Leverage responds more to decreases in the marginal tax rate, and it responds to changes in the marginal rather than the average tax rate. Most importantly, we find that the marginal tax rate based on tax returns has greater explanatory power for companies’ leverage than the marginal tax rate based on financial statements. Our study suggests that errors in the measurement for tax incentives using financial statements could lead to underestimation of the tax effects on capital structure.
keywords: Corporate taxation |Capital structure |Tax returns
Perceived impacts of medical tourism development on community wellbeing
تاثیرات مشاهده شده توسعه گردشگری دارویی روی رفاه اجتماعی-2018
Community leaders and tourism authorities in Las Vegas have suggested the promotion and development of medical tourism to improve the economy and quality of life for residents. The present study uses social exchange theory with spillover theory as the conceptual framework to examine factors of economic performance of medical tourism, overall community satisfaction, health care satisfaction and attitudes toward medical tourism; these factors influence on residents perceptions of medical tourisms impact on community wellbeing, which in turn affects willingness to pay higher taxes and support for medical tourism development. The findings revealed that the greater the economic performance of medical tourism, the more positive the impact of medical tourism to community wellbeing was perceived. Similarly, attitudes toward medical tourism and overall community satisfaction positively influenced the perceived impact of medical tourism on community wellbeing. Finally, community wellbeing positively influenced residents willingness to pay higher taxes and support medical tourism development.
keywords: Medical tourism| Resident perceptions| Community wellbeing| Quality of life| Las Vegas