Influencing factors on energy management in industries
تأثیر عوامل مؤثر بر مدیریت انرژی در صنایع-2020
Energy management has been considered in the global agenda as a way to improve energy performance and greenhouse gas reduction in organizations. Industries account for a significant part of energy use worldwide and present opportunities for energy efficiency improvements. Within the industry, energy management is a complex task, regarding scenarios with variables related to the following perspectives: economics, contingency, technological change and behavioural. This paper aims at analyzing the influencing factors on energy management in industries from these perspectives. A survey with 40 variables was carried out with middle managers from different industrial sectors in Brazil. The variables were divided into three groups: drivers for investments in energy efficiency; organizational processes and actions in energy management; involvement of middle managers. Initially, an exploratory factor analysis technique was employed aiming at specifying the main factors influencing energy management. In the sequence, a confirmatory factor analysis was used to associate the variables to the main factors as well as to know how the factors relate to each other. The study showed a positive correlation among all the factors identified. Statistical tests suggested that the factors could not be explained separately. Hypotheses tests were applied to verify the influence of the factors among the groups surveyed. The final model comprised eight factors into the three groups: organizational (strategic, operational), involvement (motivation, support), drivers (production, economics, competitiveness, environment). The results and the main implications of the study are discussed in the paper.
Keywords: Energy management | ISO 50001 | Energy efficiency | Industries | Factor analysis
Fumbling to the future? Socio-technical regime change in the recorded music industry
دست و پا می زنید به آینده؟ تغییر رژیم اجتماعی - فنی در صنعت موسیقی ضبط شده-2020
In this paper, I draw on the institutional entrepreneurship and sociotechnical imaginaries literature to develop a prospective and actor-centric approach to understanding technological transitions. Empirically, I examine the initiatives that newcomers and incumbents engaged in between 1990 and 2005 to transition the socio-technical regime associated with recorded music. My account reveals the limited ability of these actors to effectively migrate the regime despite initiating several efforts to do so – a pattern of behavior I term the fragility of in- stitutional entrepreneurship. I identify underlying factors for why this is the case and suggest that these can contribute to a regime remaining in a state of flux for an extended period of time. I also demonstrate the emergence of provisional regimes or temporary settlements between actors that either gain traction or are themselves transformed over time. In specifying the micro-processes that unfold as part of such transitions, I provide a complementary perspective to the current theorizing around socio-technical regime migration, and contribute fresh insights to the institutional entrepreneurship and sociotechnical imaginaries literature.
Keywords: Socio-technical regime transition | Technological change | Institutional entrepreneurship | Sociotechnical imaginaries | Digital music
Reinventing science and technology entrepreneurship education : The role of human and social capitals
بازآفرینی آموزش کارآفرینی علم و فناوری: نقش سرمایه های انسانی و اجتماعی-2020
With globalization, rapid technological change, and advanced telecommunications, people have become increasingly connected, and the economy is increasingly knowledge- and intellectual-based. This leads to more opportunities for innovation but also more uncertainty, which calls for increased entrepreneurial skills and the ability to adapt to meet these challenges (Heinonen and Poikkijoki, 2006). As commonly outlined by the literature in this millennium, entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial venture are the key to innovation, productivity, and effective competition (Bruyat and Julien, 2000).
Productive organizational energy mediates the impact of organizational structure on absorptive capacity
تولید انرژی سازمانی واسطه تاثیر ساختار سازمانی بر ظرفیت جذب-2018
The ability of an organization to cope with radical technological change is regarded to be heavily dependent on its ability to absorb and apply knowledge from its environment. This study investigates the role of organizational structure in driving absorptive capacity and uncovers the role of the emergent phenomenon of organizational energy as the enabler of this relationship. A field study was conducted among firms that are challenged by the disruptive nature of Cloud computing. Our results show that organizational design affects the degree of mobilization of an organizations affective, cognitive and behavioral re sources, which in turn influence the effectiveness of learning processes related to the absorption and exchange of knowledge within the organization. Furthermore, they reveal the positive relationship between the enactment of absorptive capacity and the successful adoption of Cloud technology for incumbent firms. The findings contribute to our un derstanding of the micro-foundations of absorptive capacity and how positive organiza tional phenomena facilitate effective adoption and implementation of emerging technologies.
Keywords: Dynamic capabilities ، Affect/emotions ، Organizational learning ، Technology adoption
A technology delivery system for characterizing the supply side of technology emergence: Illustrated for Big Data and Analytics
یک سیستم تحویل فناوری برای توصیف وضعیت زنجیره عرضه فناوری: مصور شده برای داده های بزرگ و تجزیه و تحلیل ها-2018
While there is a general recognition that breakthrough innovation is non-linear and requires an alignment be tween producers (supply) and users (demand), there is still a need for strategic intelligence about the emerging supply chains of new technological innovations. This technology delivery system (TDS) is an updated form of the TDS model and provides a promising chain-link approach to the supply side of innovation. Building on early research into supply-side TDS studies, we present a systematic approach to building a TDS model that includes four phases: (1) identifying the macroeconomic and policy environment, including market competition, financial investment, and industrial policy; (2) specifying the key public and private institutions; (3) addressing the core technical complements and their owners, then tracing their interactions through information linkages and technology transfers; and (4) depicting the market prospects and evaluating the potential profound influences on technological change and social developments. Our TDS methodology is illustrated using the field of Big Data & Analytics (“BDA”).
Keywords: Technology delivery system ، Tech mining ، Emerging technology ، Big Data ، Technology assessment ، Impact assessment
Data structuring—Organizing and curating digital traces into action
ساختارسازی داده-سازماندهی و ساختن آثار دیجیتال در عمل-2018
Digital transformations and processes of ‘‘datafication’’ fundamentally reshape how information is produced, circulated and given meaning. In this article, we provide a concept of ‘‘datastructuring’’ which seeks to capture this reshaping as both a product of and productive of social activity. To do this we focus on (1) how new forms of social action map onto and are enabled by technological changes related to datafication, and (2) how new forms of datafied social action constitute a form of knowledge production which becomes embedded in technologies themselves. We illustrate the potential of the datastructuring concept with empirical examples which also serve to highlight some new avenues for research and some empirical questions to explore further. We suggest a focus on datastructuring can ignite scholarly debates across disciplines that may share an interest in the technological configurations, sorting activities, and other socio-material forces that shape digital spaces, but which are rarely brought together. Such cross-disciplinary conceptualizations may give more attention to how information is structured and organized, becomes ‘‘algorithmically recognizable’’, and emerges as (in)visible in digital, datafied spaces. Such a concept, we suggest, may help us better understand the novel ways in which ‘‘backstage datawork’’ and ‘‘data sorting processes’’ gain traction in political interventions, commercial processes, and social ordering.
Keywords: Datafication | infrastructures | platforms | knowledge production | content moderation | social ordering
Big data analytics sentiment: US-China reaction to data collection by business and government
احساس تجزیه و تحلیل داده های بزرگ: واکنش ایالات متحده و چین به جمع آوری اطلاعات توسط کسب و کار و دولت-2018
As society continues its rapid change to a digitized individual, corporate, and government environment it is prudent for researchers to investigate the zeitgeist of the global citizenry. The technological changes brought about by big data analytics are changing the way we gather and view data. This big data analytics sentiment research examines how Chinese and American respondents may view big data collection and analytics differ ently. The paper follows with an analysis of reported attitudes toward possible viewpoints from each country on various big data analytics topics ranging from individual to business and governmental foci. Hofstedes cultural dimensions are used to inform and frame our research hypotheses. Findings suggest that Chinese and American perspectives differ on individual data values, with the Chinese being more open to data collection and analytic techniques targeted toward individuals. Furthermore, support is found that US respondents have a more fa vorable view of businesses use of data analytics. Finally, there is a strong difference in the attitudes toward governmental use of data, where US respondents do not favor governmental big data analytics usage and the Chinese respondents indicated a greater acceptance of governmental data usage. These findings are helpful in better understanding appropriate technological change and adoption from a societal perspective. Specifically, this research provides insights for corporate business and government entities suggesting how they might adjust their approach to big data collection and management in order to better support and sustain their organizations services and products.
Keywords: Big data ethics ، Business data usage ، Corporate data collection ، Government data usage ، Technology ethics ، US-China similarities ، US-China differences
Challenges in IT security preparedness exercises: A case study
چالش های تمرین آمادگی برای امنیت اطلاعات: یک مطالعه موردی-2017
The electric power industry is currently implementing major technological changes in order to achieve the goal of smart grids. However, these changes are expected to increase the sus ceptibility of the industry to IT security incidents. IT security preparedness exercises are not commonly performed in the electric power industry, even though this industry is con sidered part of society’s critical infrastructure. Resolving an IT security incident requires inter-departmental collaborations between various categories of personnel, and to success fully achieve this, training is required. The process of preparing a response to incidents enhances the nature of collaboration, coordination, and communication within an organi zation. Our objective is to understand the challenges faced when performing IT security preparedness exercises, as challenges experienced during these exercises affect the re sponse process during a real incident. By improving the exercises, the response capabilities would be strengthened accordingly. We have designed a multiple-case study with six teams in three organizations. We collected data by performing semi-structured interviews, par ticipant observations, and from process artifacts. We identified six main challenges involving team composition and external expert involvement, goal definition, documentation, and time management. In summary, there are many ways of conducting preparedness exercises.There fore, organizations need to both optimize current exercise practices and experiment with new ones in order to ensure continuous learning and improvement; hence, they can be ad equately prepared to respond to IT security incidents.
Keywords: Information security | Incident management | Preparedness exercises | Self-managing teams | Training | Decision-making
The Augmented Supply Chain
زنجیره تأمین تکمیل شده-2017
Supply Chain processes must augment and change with massive injection of new technologies, robotics, artificial intelligence, big data approach, and contemporarily become more sustainable, considering the growing environmental challenges. This paper explores the main technological changes and the most advanced cases in sustainable Supply Chain. From Materials Handling to Production and Distribution, big data and robotics will change conditions and push further efficiency and customer service levels. After a general overview of the present and future trends in these areas, some practical case and experiences will be quoted. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 16th International Conference on Reliability and Statistics in Transportation and Communication. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the International Conference on Reliability and Statistics in Transportation and Communication
Keywords: supply chain| big data| robotics| artificial intelligence
Measuring the environmental sustainability performance of global supply chains: A multi-regional input-output analysis for carbon, sulphur oxide and water footprints
اندازه گیری عملکرد پایدار زیست محیطی زنجیره های تامین جهانی: تجزیه و تحلیل ورودی-خروجی چند منطقه ای برای کربن، اکسید گوگرد و رد پای آب-2017
Measuring the performance of environmentally sustainable supply chains instead of chain constitute has become a challenge despite the convergence of the underlining principles of sustainable supply chain management. This challenge is exacerbated by the fact that supply chains are inherently dynamic and complex and also because multiple measures can be used to characterize performances. By identifying some of the critical issues in the literature regarding performance measurements, this paper contributes to the existing body of literature by adopting an environmental performance measurement approach for economic sectors. It uses economic sectors and evaluates them on a sectoral level in specific countries as well as part of the Global Value Chain based on the established multi-regional input-output (MRIO) modeling framework. The MRIO model has been used to calculate direct and indirect (that is supply chain or upstream) environmental effects such as CO2, SO2, biodiversity, water consumption and pollution to name just a few of the applications. In this paper we use MRIO analysis to calculate emissions and resource consumption intensities and footprints, direct and indirect impacts, and net emission flows between coun tries. These are exemplified by using carbon emissions, sulphur oxide emissions and water use in two highly polluting industries; Electricity production and Chemical industry in 33 countries, including the EU-27, Brazil, India and China, the USA, Canada and Japan from 1995 to 2009. Some of the highlights include: On average, directcarbonemissionsinthe electricitysectoracrossall27memberstatesof theEUwasestimatedtobe1368 million tons and indirect carbon emissions to be 470.7 million tons per year representing 25.6% of the EU-27 total carbon emissions related to this sector. It was also observed that from 2004, sulphur oxide emissions intensities in electricity production in India and China have remained relatively constant at about 62.8 gSOx/, respectively, $ and 84.4 gSOx/$ although being higher than in other countries. In terms of water use, the high water use intensity in China (1040.27 L/$) and India (961.63 L/$), which are among the highest in the sector in the electricity sector is exacerbated by both countries being ranked as High Water Stress Risk countries. The paper also highlights many advantages of the MRIO approach including: a 15-year time series study (which provides a measurement of environmental performance of key industries and an oppor tunity to assess technical and technological change during the investigated time period), a supply chain approach that provides a consistent methodological framework and accounts for all upstream supply chain environmental impacts throughout entire global supply chains. The paper also discusses the implications of the study to environmental sustainability performance measurement in terms of the level of analysis from a value chain hierarchy perspective, methodological issues, performance indicators, environmental exchanges and policy relevance.
Keywords: Environmental sustainability | Supply chain | Value chain | Performance measurement | Industry-level |Input-output analysis