Improving multi-sport event ticketing accounting information system design through implementing RFID and blockchain technologies within COVID-19 health protocols
بهبود طراحی سیستم اطلاعات حسابداری بلیط رویدادهای چند ورزشی از طریق پیادهسازی فناوریهای RFID و بلاک چین در پروتکلهای بهداشتی COVID-19-2021
To run a multi-sport event, it is necessary to have a design of accounting information system for ticket sales that can run efficiently and can reduce opportunities of fraudulent acts. A case study during the 18th Asian Games 2018 shows that there were problems of inadequate ticket sales facilities for prospective spectators due to vendor diversion to the frictional problems such as venues located in various regions and protection of spectator rights in accordance with the purchased tickets. Some cases found in the multi-sport event were false seats and fictitious spectators allowed entrance to some arenas they did not have the right to enter, although they have gone through verification measures using line-of-sight barcoding technology. Some cases were also found during the 18th Asian Games 2018, in which there was a problem of inadequate ticket sales facilities for prospective spectators due to a change of vendor. There were also frictional problems on venues which are spread in various regions and regarding protection of spectators’ rights per their purchased tickets. Moreover, it is fundamental that we take concern in the current pandemic situation, all event organizers are obliged to consider implementing health protocols issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) for safety to break the chain of COVID-19 infection. This study is conducted to identify the core of those problems and offer a solution by implementing radio-frequency identification (RFID) and blockchain technology to optimize the services applied in the multi-sport event, especially during and post-pandemic. Ticketing effectiveness for spectators are also challenged by budgetary and eco-friendliness issues.
keywords: سیستم اطلاعات حسابداری | بارکش | کووید -19 | رویداد چند ورزش | رام | بلیط بلیط | Accounting information system | Blockchain | COVID-19 | Multi-sport event | RFID | Ticketing
ICTS change transport and mobility: mind the policy gap
ICTS change transport and mobility: mind the policy gap!-2017
In recent years both our need or desire for mobility and the opportunities and tools available to meet them have changed (and keep on changing) as a result of information and communication technologies (ICT’s). ICT’s have influenced both our transport modes and infrastructure as well as our behaviour. In this paper we discuss the main features of these changes and investigate how they could put public values in the transport debate in a tight corner or lead to new policy challenges.Transport comes with benefits and burdens and often a unequal distribution of both. Moreover, there are tensions between short and long term interests, public and private interests and between efficiency and equity. Analysing how new developments impact public values that are considered relevant in the transport debate shows that there is a wide range of aspects to consider. We discuss four public values. Accessibility is concerned with providing access for all, making sure there are transport options available as well as taking care that people have the capabilities to access them. Affordability or (cost) efficiency is about spending public money wisely. Availability reflects the need for a reliable transport system, today and in the future, as this is crucial for economic performance and social interaction. Acceptability is a broad category including issues with regard to justice and solidarity, the impact on safety and other external effects, the impact on the market playing field and respect for privacy.ICT’s change transport in very different ways. They have changed the world of travel and traffic information, bringing more options and alternatives under people’s attention. Public transport information is widely available, GPS’s guide our car trips and provide real time information on traffic conditions, and platforms enable us to find a shared car or a Uber taxi fast and easy. They have enabled new forms of transport, such as new services offered through internet platforms, and probably will enable other new modes like self-driving vehicles. ICTs change our need or desire to travel and our travel experience. They change the geography of our destinations. All in all, ICT’s change our behaviour in many ways, making us more flexible leading to more fragmented patterns in space and time. And with all these changes, the transport system also becomes more complex.Assessment of new developments in the transport system as a result of ICT’s leads us to four major challenges, requiring policy makers to adopt a more proactive approach in order to deal with these. First, the behavioural patterns in space and time are becoming more and more whimsical and less predictable, while infrastructure such as road or rail is inherently robust, inert and takes a long time to plan and build. Yet somehow, the mice and the elephant will have to (learn to) dance together., Second, social equity is a major concern when accessibility becomes more and more dependent on privately run platforms and transport service providers using unknown algorithms. Access can be limited in multiple ways. Physical access can be an issue (service provider may shun certain neighbourhoods). However, more and more it is a matter of skills and psychological flexibility to keep* Corresponding authorE-mail address: Danielle.Snellen@pbl.nl2352-1465 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.Peer-review under responsibility of Association for European Transport 10.1016/j.trpro.2017.07.003up with new things (for example smart ticketing in public transport or using apps for travel information) and not everyone can cope with that. Third, there appears to be a strong ‘winner-takes-it-all’ tendency in the ICT sector. Tech companies become rich, powerful and unassailable, while they profit from collectively financed infrastructure (e.g. Uber). The costs for development, maintenance, education, safety etcetera are left to the public domain, as are the consequences of monopolisation, unfair compe
Secured miniaturized system-in-package contactless and passive authentication devices featuring NFC
سیستم امن مینیاتوری در بسته بدون تماس و احراز هویت دستگاه های غیر فعال دارای NFC-2017
RFID/NFC technology is widely spread nowadays and applications can be found in our everyday life, for example, in payment, transportation, logistics, healthcare, and access control. State-of-the-art contactless and passive authentication solutions implement relatively large coils outside of the chip. Therefore, the minimum size is in the order of a few square centimeters, which limits their use for tagging of certain small-sized goods. On top of that, those miniaturized solutions which are available today provide only limited security measures. Here we introduce miniaturized system-in-package contactless authentication devices. This novel solution integrates Infineon Technologies’ CIPURSETMmove IC, which is a state-of-the-art security solution featur ing an open security standard, into embedded Wafer Level Ball Grid Array (eWLB) packages, together with HF-antennas, ferrites, as well as discrete elements that improve HF-coupling characteristics. The presented devices provide better HF-coupling characteristics than Coil-on-Chip approaches, which also enable verification of authenticity of tagged products through NFC-enabled smart phones. Thanks to the miniaturized package sizes of 3 × 3 mm, integration into high-priced products, casings, consumable materials, etc., can be achieved in a discreet way. Furthermore, the integrated CIPURSETM chip enables not only the anti-counterfeiting use-case, but also micropayment, ticketing, access control, and password storage in a secured way. Therefore, this miniaturized contactless authentication solution will open up whole new fields of applications.
Keywords: Security | System-in-package | eWLB | RFID | NFC | CIPURSETM
An empirical model for the psychology of deliberate and unintentional fare evasion
مدل تجربی روانشناسی عمدی و غیر عمدی فرار از کرایه-2017
Fare evasion is a major source of revenue loss for public transport systems worldwide. In difficult economic times, it is more important than ever for public transport systems to reduce revenue loss through fare evasion to better target income and service supply to available budgets. This paper reports the results of a major project seeking to reduce fare evasion by better understanding the psychological factors causing evasion. The focus of the research is Melbourne Australia where some $Aust55M/€35Mp.a. (average 2005–2011) is lost through fare evasion representing 11.6% of ridership (in May 2012). The major aim of the research is to identify, using empirical, research the factors influencing passengers to either deliberately or unintentionally fare evade. A web-based survey was administered to residents of Melbourne, Australia with a total sample size of 1561. The questionnaire was introduced as a survey about transit travel and ticketing but included questions about various aspects of fare evasion behaviour. The research developed a new framework for fare evasion psychology based on the concept of ‘Consumer Misbehaviour and the Theory of Planned Behaviour to explain intention to fare evade as a function of attitudes, norms, perceived control, “servicescape” perceptions and personality factors. The framework is tested using Structural Equation Modelling Two statistically significant models were developed to explain ‘deliberate’ and ‘unintentional fare evasion. The ‘deliberate’ evasion model showed that honesty attributes, perceived ease of evasion and permissive attitudes to evasion were the key explanatory factors. For ‘unintentional’ evasion, honest and permissive attitudes were also significant however ‘ticketing competence’ was also influential. The paper explores how the findings are to be used to reduce evasion rates including areas for future research. The research has been applied by authorities to considerably reduce fare evasion rates in Melbourne, Australia.
Keywords: Fare evasion | Theory of planned behaviour | Structural equation modelling