دانلود و نمایش مقالات مرتبط با Traceability::صفحه 1
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نتیجه جستجو - Traceability

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 47
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 System architecture for blockchain based transparency of supply chain social sustainability
معماری سیستم برای شفافیت مبتنی بر بلاکچین پایداری اجتماعی زنجیره تأمین-2020
Social sustainability is a major concern in global supply chains for protecting workers from exploitation and for providing a safe working environment. Although there are stipulated standards to govern supply chain social sustainability, it is not uncommon to hear of businesses being reported for noncompliance issues. Even reputable firms such as Unilever have been criticized for production labor exploitation. Consumers now increasingly expect sellers to disclose information on social sustainability, but sellers are confronted with the challenge of traceability in their multi-tier global supply chains. Blockchain offers a promising future to achieve instant traceability in supply chain social sustainability. This study develops a system architecture that integrates the use of blockchain, internet-of-things (IoT) and big data analytics to allow sellers to monitor their supply chain social sustainability efficiently and effectively. System implementation cost and potential challenges are analyzed before the research is concluded.
Keywords: Blockchain | Social sustainability | Multi-tier supply chain | Supply chain sustainability | Traceability
مقاله انگلیسی
2 The ethics of AI in health care: A mapping review
اخلاق هوش مصنوعی در مراقبت های بهداشتی: یک بررسی نقشه برداری-2020
This article presents a mapping review of the literature concerning the ethics of artificial intelligence (AI) in health care. The goal of this review is to summarise current debates and identify open questions for future research. Five literature databases were searched to support the following research question: how can the primary ethical risks presented by AI-health be categorised, and what issues must policymakers, regulators and developers consider in order to be ‘ethically mindful? A series of screening stages were carried out—for example, removing articles that focused on digital health in general (e.g. data sharing, data access, data privacy, surveillance/ nudging, consent, ownership of health data, evidence of efficacy)—yielding a total of 156 papers that were included in the review. We find that ethical issues can be (a) epistemic, related to misguided, inconclusive or inscrutable evidence; (b) normative, related to unfair outcomes and transformative effectives; or (c) related to traceability. We further find that these ethical issues arise at six levels of abstraction: individual, interpersonal, group, institutional, and societal or sectoral. Finally, we outline a number of considerations for policymakers and regulators, mapping these to existing literature, and categorising each as epistemic, normative or traceability-related and at the relevant level of abstraction. Our goal is to inform policymakers, regulators and developers of what they must consider if they are to enable health and care systems to capitalise on the dual advantage of ethical AI; maximising the opportunities to cut costs, improve care, and improve the efficiency of health and care systems, whilst proactively avoiding the potential harms. We argue that if action is not swiftly taken in this regard, a new ‘AI winter’ could occur due to chilling effects related to a loss of public trust in the benefits of AI for health care.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence | Ethics | Healthcare | Health policies | Machine learning
مقاله انگلیسی
3 Coordinating energy management for multiple energy hubs: From a transaction perspective
هماهنگی مدیریت انرژی برای مراکز مختلف انرژی: از منظر معاملات-2020
The coupled multiple energy carriers integrated with distributed energy units, e.g., energy converters, renewable energy, and storages have offered energy hubs high flexibility and independent controllability. In this paper, a decentralized transactive based energy management framework enabling coordination among multiple energy hubs (MEHs) is developed. Aiming to improve the economic performance of the interconnected energy hub system, a peer to peer (P2P) transaction platform is established for the self-organized trading of MEH. Particularly, a generic scheme for the generation of transaction prices is specified for the energy hub, which is firstly integrated into a modified alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) method for the realization of achieving P2P transaction consensus amongst MEHs. Furthermore, this price scheme offers high traceability of energy-price flows inner EHs operation process and external energy transaction activities, providing transparent price signals in the local P2P market. A three-energy hub system is simulated, and numerical case studies have demonstrated the proposed coordination scheme actively encourages individual EH to enroll in the P2P transaction scheme, offering all EHs a win-win transaction framework and improving the global economic efficiency of the networked system.
Keywords: Energy hubs | Decentralized optimization | P2P transaction
مقاله انگلیسی
4 Adversarial behaviours in mixing coins under incomplete information
رفتارهای خصمانه در اختلاط سکه در زیر اطلاعات ناقص-2020
Criminals can launder crypto-currencies through mixing coins, whose original purpose is preservation of privacy in the presence of traceability. Therefore, it is essential to elaborately design mixing polices to achieve both privacy and anti-money laundering. Existing work on mixing policies relies on the knowledge of a blacklist. However, these policies are paralysed under the scenario where the blacklist is unknown or evolving. In this paper, we regard the above scenario as games under incomplete information where parties put down a deposit for the quality of coins, which is suitably managed by a smart contract in case of mixing bad coins. We extend the poison and haircut policies to incomplete information games, where the blacklist is updated after mixing. We prove the existence of equilibria for the improved polices, while it is known that there is no equilibria in the original poison and haircut policies, where blacklist is public known. Furthermore, we propose a seminal suicide policy: the one who mixes more bad coins will be punished by not having the deposit refunded. Thus, parties have no incentives to launder money by leveraging mixing coins. In effect, all three policies contrast money laundering while preserving privacy under incomplete information. Finally, we simulate and verify the validity of these policies.
Keywords: Mixing coins | Incomplete information | Smart contract | Equilibrium
مقاله انگلیسی
5 Profile model for management of sustainability integration in engineering design requirements
مدل پروفایل برای مدیریت ادغام پایداری در الزامات طراحی مهندسی-2020
This research provides insights into how sustainability considerations in engineering product design can be addressed through early stages of requirement management processes. Five key elements for successful implementation of sustainable product development from a requirement management perspective are presented, demonstrating how organisational sustainability maturity can be linked to the design and structure of a company’s operational management system. Through a thematic analysis of fifteen interviews with representatives from seven Swedish product developing-and manufacturing companies, critical activities and roles, examples of methods and tools utilisation and implementation, together with challenges and opportunities were identified. This empirical data was used to develop, test and refine a model in which key characteristics of sustainable product design and engineering design were coupled, resulting in a profile model for management of sustainability in requirements. Product developing companies can use the profile model as guidance towards necessary actions that enhance organisational sustainability maturity. Motivated by a low uptake rate of sustainability design tools in industry, this study brings attention to organisational capabilities for successful implementation of sustainable product development. As a lack of traceability is a potential cause, strategic socioecological contextualisation of needs is suggested to improve the chain of decision making in engineering design projects. The guiding research question was ‘What are sustainability requirements and how are they identified and managed in design projects?’. The main contribution is a proposed conceptualised model that aims to support design teams to identify and manage sustainability in requirements for engineering design projects. Future studies will test and validate the model.
Keywords: Sustainable product development | Sustainable design | Requirement management | Traceability | Sustainability maturity
مقاله انگلیسی
6 اخبار جعلی، اطلاعات نادرست، و جعل های عمیق: نوسازی فن‌آوری‌های دفترکل توزیع‌ شده و بلاکچین برای مبارزه با فریب دیجیتال و واقعیت جعلی
سال انتشار: 2020 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 7 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 14
ظهور جعل های عمیق همه جا، اطلاعات نادرست، اطلاعات دروغ، و غلط پس از حقیقت، که اغلب به عنوان اخبار جعلی شناخته می‌شوند، نگرانی‌ها را در مورد نقش اینترنت و رسانه‌های اجتماعی در جوامع دموکراتیک مدرن افزایش می‌دهد. با توجه به انتشار سریع و گسترده آن، فریب دیجیتال نه تنها هزینه فردی یا اجتماعی دارد، بلکه می‌تواند منجر به زیان‌های اقتصادی قابل‌توجه یا خطراتی برای امنیت ملی شود. زنجیره قفل و دیگر تکنولوژی‌های دفترکل توزیع‌شده (‏DLET) ‏با ارایه یک رکورد شفاف، تغییر ناپذیر و قابل تایید از تراکنش ها در حین ایجاد یک بس‌تر امن نظیر به نظیر برای ذخیره‌سازی و تبادل اطلاعات، منشا و قابلیت ردیابی داده‌ها را تضمین می‌کنند هدف این مرور بررسی پتانسیل DLT ها برای مبارزه با فریب دیجیتال، توصیف مرتبط‌ترین کاربردها و شناسایی چالش‌های آشکار اصلی آن‌ها است. علاوه بر این، برخی توصیه‌ها برای راهنمایی محققان آینده در مورد مسائلی که باید برای تقویت مقاومت در برابر تهدیدهای سایبری در رسانه‌های آنلاین امروز به آن‌ها پرداخته شود، احصا شده‌اند.
مقاله ترجمه شده
7 To chain or not to chain: A reinforcement learning approach for blockchain-enabled IoT monitoring applications
به زنجیر کردن یا نکردن : رویکرد یادگیری تقویت کننده برای برنامه های نظارت بر اینترنت اشیا-با استفاده از بلاکچین-2020
Traceability and autonomous business logic execution are highly desirable features in IoT monitoring applications. Traceability enables verifying signals’ history for security or analytical purposes. On the other hand, the autonomous execution of pre-defined rules establishes trust between parties involved in such applications and improves the efficiency of their workflow. Smart Contracts (SCs) firmly guarantee these two requirements due to the blockchain’s immutable distributed ledger and secure cryptographic consensus rules. Thus, SCs emerged as an appealing technology for monitoring applications. However, the cost of using public blockchains to harvest these guarantees can be prohibitive, especially with the considerable fluctuation of coin prices and different use case requirements. In this paper, we introduce a general SC-based IoT monitoring framework that can leverage the security features of public blockchains while minimizing the corresponding monetary cost. The framework contains a reinforcement learning agent that adapts to users’ needs and acts in real-time to smartly set the data submission rate of IoT sensors. Results based on the Ethereum protocol show significant potential cost saving depending on users’ preferences.
Keywords: Blockchain | Smart contracts | Monitoring applications | Internet of things | Reinforcement learning | Cost optimization
مقاله انگلیسی
8 System architecture for blockchain based transparency of supply chain social sustainability
معماری سیستم برای شفافیت مبتنی بر بلاکچین از پایداری اجتماعی زنجیره تأمین-2019
Social sustainability is a major concern in global supply chains for protecting workers from exploitation and for providing a safe working environment. Although there are stipulated standards to govern supply chain social sustainability, it is not uncommon to hear of businesses being reported for noncompliance issues. Even reputable firms such as Unilever have been criticized for production labor exploitation. Consumers now increasingly expect sellers to disclose information on social sustainability, but sellers are confronted with the challenge of traceability in their multi-tier global supply chains. Blockchain offers a promising future to achieve instant traceability in supply chain social sustainability. This study develops a system architecture that integrates the use of blockchain, internet-of-things (IoT) and big data analytics to allow sellers to monitor their supply chain social sustainability efficiently and effectively. System implementation cost and potential challenges are analyzed before the research is concluded.
Keywords: Blockchain | Social sustainability | Multi-tier supply chain | Supply chain sustainability | Traceability
مقاله انگلیسی
9 Blockchain-based event processing in supply chains : A case study at IKEA
پردازش رویداد مبتنی بر بلاکچین در زنجیره های تأمین: مطالعه موردی در IKEA-2019
One of the major areas of interest for deployment of blockchains is in the supply chain sector where decentralisation combined with immutability is expected to enhance the transparency and robustness of transaction processing drastically. In this work we contribute to a feasibility study for permissioned blockchains in the context of a major international retail company. First, we characterise the types, relationships, and volumes of events that are created in the life cycle of a product from creation to ownership transfer. We use the created event model and the data from the company operations to identify the load that such an event processing system would have to manage. Then we create a prototype based on Quorum that deals with a significant subset of the events and expose the blockchain-based prototype to variations in load to identify the maximum throughput and average transaction processing time. This system can then form the basis of understanding the bottlenecks, configuration settings and platform choices needed in future potential deployment.
Keywords: Blockchain | Traceability | Supply chain | Quorum | IBFT
مقاله انگلیسی
10 Blockchain-based accountability for multi-party oblivious RAM
پاسخگویی مبتنی بر بلاکچین برای RAM فراموشی چند طرفه-2019
Recently, oblivious random access machine (ORAM) has been widely used to prevent privacy leakage from user’s access pattern. However, in multi-user scenarios, the obliviousness property of ORAM facilitates the malicious data modification by unauthorized users, which brings a new security challenge of user accountability to ORAM applications. Moreover, based on our observations, existing user accountability schemes for multi-user ORAM induce the extremely unacceptable overhead in both time and storage. What is worse, it is still inherent the traditional cloud accountability problem that the untrusted cloud server may have misbehavior on storing the outsourced data. In this paper, we focus on the issue that how to do accountability for both malicious users and untrusted cloud server without the independent trusted third party server. To address the above problem, we design and implement a Traceable Oblivious RAM, or T-ORAM for short, a cryptographic system that protects the privacy of users and the integrity of outsourced data based on group signatures. It can detect malicious users quickly by utilizing the traceability property of group signatures, and cost less storage overhead comparing with the existing solutions. Then, we further propose a more secure solution of Blockchain-based Traceable Oblivious RAM (BTORAM). Specifically, by introducing the blockchain technology, BT-ORAM can detect the malicious behavior from both malicious users and untrusted cloud server. BT-ORAM is the first accountability work for multi-user ORAM that deal with both malicious users and the untrusted cloud server. Finally, security analysis and experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art accountability work for oblivious RAM, S-GORAM, in both security and performance.
Keywords: Oblivious RAM | Accountability | Group signature | Blockchain | Access control
مقاله انگلیسی
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