دانلود و نمایش مقالات مرتبط با Trade-offs::صفحه 1
بلافاصله پس از پرداخت دانلود کنید
نتیجه جستجو - Trade-offs

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 61
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 Efficient and sustainable closed-loop supply chain network design: A two-stage stochastic formulation with a hybrid solution methodology
طراحی شبکه زنجیره تامین حلقه بسته کارآمد و پایدار: یک فرمول تصادفی دو مرحله ای با روش راه حل ترکیبی-2021
In recent years, consumers and legislators have pushed companies to design their supply chain networks to consider environmental and social impacts as an important performance outcome. Due to the role of resource utilization as a key component of logistics network design, another primary goal of design is ensuring available scarce resources are used as efficiently as possible across all facilities. To address efficiency issues in a sustainable closed-loop supply chain network, a stochastic integrated multi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming model is developed in this paper, in which sustainability outcomes as well as efficiency of facility resource utilization are considered in the design of a sustainable supply chain network. In doing so, efficiency is assessed using a bi-objective output-oriented data envelopment analysis model. A hybrid three-step solution methodology is presented that creates a linear form of the original mixed integer nonlinear programming problem using piecewise McCormick envelopes approach. In the second step, an aggregated single objective programming model is derived by exploiting the multi-choice goal programming. Finally, a Lagrangian relaxation algorithm is developed to effectively solve the latter stochastic single objective mixed integer linear programming problem. The application of the proposed approach is investigated with data drawn from a case study in the electronics industry. This case study illustrates how firms may balance sustainability and efficiency in the supply chain network design problem. Further, it demonstrates the integration of efficiency results in improving economic aspects of sustainability as well as social responsibility outcomes, but also highlights the trade-offs that exist between efficiency and environmental impacts.
Keywords: Closed-loop supply chain network | Sustainability | Data envelopment analysis | Stochastic programming | Multi-choice goal programming | Lagrangian relaxation
مقاله انگلیسی
2 A multi-objective robust optimization model for upstream hydrocarbon supply chain
یک مدل بهینه سازی قوی چند هدفه برای زنجیره تأمین هیدروکربن بالادست-2021
The hydrocarbon supply chain (HCSC) is a significant part of the world’s energy sector. The energy market has experienced erratic behavior over the last few years results in financial risks such as exceeding certain limits of the budget or not achieving the desired levels of cash in-flow, i.e., revenue. In this work, robust optimization and multi-objective mathematical programming are used to develop a model that eliminates or at least mitigates the impact of uncertain market behavior. Robust optimization provides tactical plans that are feasible and robust over market scenarios. The model assesses the trade-offs between alternatives and guides the decision-maker towards the effective management of the HCSC. The economic objectives are to minimize total cost and maximize revenue, while the non-economic objective is to minimize the depletion rate. The model considers the environmental aspect by limiting the emission of CO2 and the sustainability aspect by reducing the depletion rate of natural resources. Uncertain behavior of the oil market is modeled on scenario representation. A case study based on real data from Saudi Arabia HCSC is provided to demonstrate the model’s practicality, and a sensitivity analysis is conducted to provide some managerial insights. The results indicate that Saudi Arabia can cover its entire expenditure, break-evenpoint, by producing oil at 7.18 MMbbld and gas at 3,543.48 MMcftd. Besides, the robust approach provides a preferred plan with the highest cash inflow and the lowest sustainability over other approaches, e.g., deterministic, stochastic, and risk-based. The differences show that the robust model increases oil production to compensate for the variability of the scenario.
KEYWORDS: Hydrocarbon supply chain | Multi-objective optimization | Robust optimization | Scenario-Based Optimization | Tactical planning
مقاله انگلیسی
3 Accounting for spatial autocorrelation is needed to avoid misidentifying trade-offs and bundles among ecosystem services
حسابداری برای خودهمبستگی فضایی مورد نیاز برای جلوگیری از شناسایی نادرست مبادلات و بسته‌ها در میان خدمات اکوسیستم-2021
The identification of relationships between multiple ecosystem services (ES) (i.e. trade-offs, synergies and bundles) is essential for ES management. However, the identification of ES relationships may be susceptible to spatial autocorrelation — a statistical bias due to ES observations being related to each other across space. Spatial autocorrelation remains largely overlooked in the literature on ES relationships and its implications are not clear. Here we assess the implication of not accounting for spatial autocorrelation when determining ES relationships using four ES found in the city-state of Singapore. We quantify the ES relationships using some of the most common methods of determining relationships between ES: correlation, regression and principal component analysis. We then compare each method with the corresponding method that accounts for spatial autocorrela- tion. We found that accounting for spatial autocorrelation resulted in less statistically significant ES relationships, especially at finer resolutions, in correlations (33.3% less significant relationships) and regressions (50% less relationships). Depending on the spatial resolution, different ES were bundled when accounting for spatial autocorrelation when using principal component analysis. Our results suggest that not accounting for spatial autocorrelation in ES relationship studies is likely to result in the misidentification of ES trade-off, synergies and bundles. We thus recommend that future ES relationship studies consider the effects of spatial autocorrelation in their analyses.
keywords: نرم افزار خدمات اکوسیستم | تجزیه فضایی | تجارت | همکاری | مشارکت طبیعت به مردم | مزایای طبیعت | Ecosystem services bundles | Spatial analysis | Trade-offs | Synergies | Nature’s contributions to people | Nature’s benefits
مقاله انگلیسی
4 A life cycle sustainability assessment of organic and conventional pork supply chains in Sweden
ارزیابی پایداری چرخه زندگی زنجیره های تامین گوشت خوک آلی و معمولی در سوئد-2021
Most existing life cycle assessment studies that have compared the sustainability of organic and conventional pork supply chains are environmental assessments. The economic and social sustainability dimensions of pork supply chains are currently under-researched. The study reported here was designed to assess the environmental, economic and social sustainability of conventional and organic pork in Sweden. Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment was undertaken using 20 indicators expressed per unit product (1000 kg pork fork weight) and per unit area (1000 ha of farmland) for the four main subsystems in pork supply chains: (1) farm and feed production, (2) slaughter, (3) wholesaling and retailing, and (4) consumption. The organic pork supply chain out-performed the conventional chain in 11 of the 20 indicators expressed per unit product and 18 of the 20 indicators expressed per unit area. It was therefore the more sustainable of the two chains in nearly all the indicators expressed per unit area. However, the organic supply chain was less sustainable in some of the indicators expressed per unit product because, more feed per kg of pork was required in organic pork production. Pig welfare improvement leads to higher production costs and environmental impacts. Assessment of all three sustainability dimensions – environmental, economic and social – helps to identify trade-offs between these three pillars of sustainability. However, the selection of indicators influences results, and obtaining environmental, economic and social data simultaneously is challenging.
Keywords: Life cycle sustainability assessment | Environmental life cycle assessment | Life cycle costing | Social life cycle assessment | Organic pork supply chain | Conventional pork supply chain
مقاله انگلیسی
5 Evaluating nature-based solutions for climate mitigation and conservation requires comprehensive carbon accounting
ارزیابی راه حل های مبتنی بر طبیعت برای کاهش و حفاظت از آب و هوا نیاز به حسابداری کربن جامع دارد-2021
Nature-based solutions (NbS) can address climate change, biodiversity loss, human well-being and their interactions in an integrated way. A major barrier to achieving this is the lack of comprehensiveness in current carbon accounting which has focused on flows rather than stocks of carbon and led to perverse outcomes. We propose a new comprehensive approach to carbon accounting based on the whole carbon cycle, covering both stocks and flows, and linking changes due to human activities with responses in the biosphere and atmosphere. We identify enhancements to accounting, namely; inclusion of all carbon reservoirs, changes in their condition and stability, disaggregated flows, and coverage of all land areas. This comprehensive approach recognises that both carbon stocks (as storage) and carbon flows (as sequestration) contribute to the ecosystem service of global climate regulation. In contrast, current ecosystem services measurement and accounting commonly use only carbon sequestration measured as net flows, while greenhouse gas inventories use flows from sources to sinks. This flow-based accounting has incentivised planting and maintaining young forests with high carbon uptake rates, resulting, perversely, in failing to reveal the greater mitigation benefit from protecting larger, more stable and resilient carbon stocks in natural forests. We demonstrate the benefits of carbon storage and sequestration for climate mitigation, in theory as ecosystem services within an ecosystem accounting framework, and in practice using field data that reveals differences in results between accounting for stocks or flows. Our proposed holistic and comprehensive carbon accounting makes transparent the benefits, trade-offs and shortcomings of NbS actions for climate mitigation and sustainability outcomes. Adopting this approach is imperative for revision of ecosystem accounting systems under the System of EnvironmentalEconomic Accounting and contributing to evidence-based decision-making for international conventions on climate (UNFCCC), biodiversity (CBD) and sustainability (SDGs).
keywords: راه حل های مبتنی بر طبیعت | حسابداری کربن | خدمات آب و هوا | ذخیره سازی کربن و جداسازی | یکپارچگی اکوسیستم | سیستم حسابداری محیط زیست اقتصادی | Nature-based solutions | Carbon accounting | Climate regulation service | Carbon storage and sequestration | Ecosystem integrity | System of Environmental-Economic Accounting
مقاله انگلیسی
6 Benchmarking vision kernels and neural network inference accelerators on embedded platforms
محک زدن هسته بینایی و شتاب دهنده های استنتاج شبکه عصبی بر روی سیستم عامل های توکار-2021
Developing efficient embedded vision applications requires exploring various algorithmic optimization trade- offs and a broad spectrum of hardware architecture choices. This makes navigating the solution space and finding the design points with optimal performance trade-offs a challenge for developers. To help provide a fair baseline comparison, we conducted comprehensive benchmarks of accuracy, run-time, and energy efficiency of a wide range of vision kernels and neural networks on multiple embedded platforms: ARM57 CPU, Nvidia Jetson TX2 GPU and Xilinx ZCU102 FPGA. Each platform utilizes their optimized libraries for vision kernels (OpenCV, Vision Works and xfOpenCV) and neural networks (OpenCV DNN, TensorRT and Xilinx DPU). Forvision kernels, our results show that the GPU achieves an energy/frame reduction ratio of 1.1–3.2× compared to the others for simple kernels. However, for more complicated kernels and complete vision pipelines, the FPGA outperforms the others with energy/frame reduction ratios of 1.2–22.3×. For neural networks [Inception-v2 and ResNet-50, ResNet-18, Mobilenet-v2 and SqueezeNet], it shows that the FPGA achieves a speed up of [2.5, 2.1, 2.6, 2.9 and 2.5]× and an EDP reduction ratio of [1.5, 1.1, 1.4, 2.4 and 1.7]× compared to the GPU FP16 implementations, respectively.
Keywords: Benchmarks | CPUs | GPUs | FPGAs | Embedded vision | Neural networks
مقاله انگلیسی
7 Future trade-offs and synergies among ecosystem services in Mediterranean forests under global change scenarios
معاملات آتی و هم افزایی بین خدمات اکوسیستم در جنگل های مدیترانه تحت سناریوهای تغییر جهانی-2020
Mediterranean forests play a key role in providing services and goods to society, and are currently threatened by global change. We assessed the future provision of ecosystem services by Mediterranean pine forests under a set of management and climate change scenarios, built by combining different regional policies and climate change assumptions. We used the process-based model SORTIE-ND to simulate forest dynamics under each scenario. We coupled the outputs of SORTIE-ND with empirical and process-based models to estimate changes in harvested timber, carbon storage, mushroom yield, water provision, soil erosion mitigation and habitat for biodiversity by 2100, and assessed the trade-offs and synergies between services. Our results suggest that future provision of ecosystem services by Mediterranean forests will be more strongly determined by management policies than by climate. However, no management policy maximized the provision of all services. The continuation of the business-as-usual management would benefit some services to the detriment of water provision, but leads to higher vulnerability to extreme drought-events or wildfires. Managing for reducing forest vulnerability will balance the provision of services while reducing the risk of damage to forest functioning. We also found multiple spatial synergies between ecosystem services provision, likely driven by differences in site productivity.
Keywords: Ecosystem services | SORTIE-ND | Forest dynamics | EU-forest policies | Climate change | Multi-functional forest | Climate-smart forestry
مقاله انگلیسی
8 Isolating residents including wandering residents in care and group homes: Medical ethics and English law in the context of Covid-19
منزوی کردن ساکنان از جمله ساکنان سرگردان در خانه های مراقبتی و گروهی: اخلاق پزشکی و قانون انگلیس در زمینه کووید-19-2020
This article investigates the lawfulness of isolating residents of care and group homes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many residents are mobile, and their freedom to move is a central ethical tenet and human right. It is not however an absolute right and trade-offs between autonomy, liberty and health need to be made since COVID-19 is highly infectious and poses serious risks of critical illness and death. People living in care and group homes may be particularly vulnerable because recommended hygiene practices are difficult for them and many residents are elderly, and/or have co-morbidities. In some circumstances, the trade-offs can be made easily with the agreement of the resident and for short periods of time. However challenging cases arise, in particular for residents and occupants with dementia who‘wander’, meaning they have a strong need to walk, sometimes due to agitation, as may also be the case for some people with developmental disability (e.g. autism),or as a consequence of mental illness.This article addresses three central questions: (1) in what circumstances is it lawful to isolate residents of social care homes to prevent transmission of COVID-19, in particular where the resident has a strong compulsion to walk and will not, or cannot, remain still and isolated? (2) what types of strategies are lawful to curtail walking and achieve isolation and social distancing? (3) is law reform required to ensure any action to restrict freedoms is lawful and not excessive? These questions emerged during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and are still relevant. Although focussed on COVID-19, the results are also relevant to other future outbreaks of infectious diseases in care and group homes. Likewise, while we concentrate on the law in England and Wales, the analysis and implications have international significance.
مقاله انگلیسی
9 Low carbon building performance in the construction industry: A multi-method approach of project management operations and building energy use applied in a UK public office building
کارایی ساخت کربن کم در صنعت تولید : یک رویکرد چند روش از عملیات مدیریت پروژه و استفاده از انرژی مصرفی ساختمان که در ساختمان اداری عمومی انگلیس اعمال می شود-2020
The “performance gap”in the United Kingdom construction industry is a persistent problem as new building development projects underperform more often than not. The “performance gap”is partially attributed to the number of stages involved in building project development and the coordination diffi- culties of partners with different incentives. The project outcome is important for energy consumption, carbon emissions and occupant well-being. Thus, it is important to study the project management pro- cess in terms of the standard time, cost and quality parameters, but also in terms of project partner incentives and coordination, and the subsequent energy performance and resultant indoor environmental conditions. A system dynamics model of project management processes is developed to explore the im- plications of partner coordination for building quality. The system dynamics model is coupled to a build- ing performance simulation model to explore building energy consumption and Indoor Environmental Quality, and apply this on a recent building project case study. Results show that greater project partner alignment can reduce annual energy consumption up to 12% and CO 2 emissions up to 37%, with greater emphasis in the design stage of the project subject to resource availability. The trade-offs involved on value appropriation are considered and discussion of results points to possible ways for improvement.
Keywords: Energy consumption | Simulation | Low carbon | Building performance | System dynamics
مقاله انگلیسی
10 Smart charging of electric vehicles considering photovoltaic power production and electricity consumption: A review
شارژ هوشمند وسایل نقلیه برقی با توجه به تولید انرژی فتوولتائیک و مصرف برق: بررسی-2020
Photovoltaics (PV) and electric vehicles (EVs) are two emerging technologies often considered as cornerstones in the energy and transportation systems of future sustainable cities. They both have to be integrated into the power systems and be operated together with already existing loads and generators and, often, into buildings, where they potentially impact the overall energy performance of the buildings. Thus, a high penetration of both PV and EVs poses new challenges. Understanding of the synergies between PV, EVs and existing electricity consumption is therefore required. Recent research has shown that smart charging of EVs could improve the synergy between PV, EVs and electricity consumption, leading to both technical and economic advantages. Considering the growing interest in this field, this review paper summarizes state-of-the-art studies of smart charging considering PV power production and electricity consumption. The main aspects of smart charging reviewed are objectives, configurations, algorithms and mathematical models. Various charging objectives, such as increasing PV utilization and reducing peak loads and charging cost, are reviewed in this paper. The different charging control configurations, i.e., centralized and distributed, along with various spatial configurations, e.g., houses and workplaces, are also discussed. After that, the commonly employed optimization techniques and rulebased algorithms for smart charging are reviewed. Further research should focus on finding optimal trade-offs between simplicity and performance of smart charging schemes in terms of control configuration, charging algorithms, as well as the inclusion of PV power and load forecast in order to make the schemes suitable for practical implementations.
Keywords: Photovoltaics | Electric vehicles | Electricity consumption | Smart charging | Energy management system | Charging optimization
مقاله انگلیسی
rss مقالات ترجمه شده rss مقالات انگلیسی rss کتاب های انگلیسی rss مقالات آموزشی
logo-samandehi