Taboo trade-off aversion: A discrete choice model and empirical analysis
انگیختگی تبادل تابو: یک مدل انتخاب گسسته و تحلیل تجربی-2017
An influential body of literature in moral psychology suggests that decision makers consider trade-offs morally problematic, or taboo, when the attributes traded off against each other belong to different ‘spheres’, such as friendship versus market transactions. This study is the first to model and empirically explore taboo trade-off aversion in a discrete choice context. To capture possible taboo trade-off aversion, we propose to extend the conventional linear in parameters logit model by including penalties for taboo trade-offs. Using this model, we then explore the presence (and size) of taboo trade-off aversion in a data set specifically collected for this purpose. Results, based on estimation of a variety of (Mixed) Logit models with and without taboo trade-off penalties, suggest that there is indeed a significant and sizeable taboo trade-off aversion underlying choice behaviour of respondents.
Managing congestion in supply chains via dynamic freight routing: An application in the biomass supply chain
مدیریت تراکم در زنجیره تامین از طریق مسیریابی حمل و نقل پویا: یک برنامه در زنجیره تامین زیستی-2017
This paper manages congestion in the supply chain via dynamic freight routing and using multi-modal facilities in different time periods of a year. The proposed mixed integer non linear program (MINLP) model captures the trade-offs that exists between investment, transportation, and congestion management decisions. A linear approximation of the pro posed MINLP model is then solved using a hybrid Benders-based rolling horizon algorithm. The performance of the algorithm is tested on a case study that uses data from the Southeast USA biomass supply chain network. Extensive numerical experiments provide managerial insights to manage congestion from the biomass supply chain network.
Keywords:Biomass supply chain network design|Dynamic freight routing|Facility congestion|Benders decomposition|Rolling horizon heuristic
How does adaptive co-management relate to specified and general resilience? An approach from Isla Mayor, Andalusia, Spain
چگونگی مدیریت هماهنگی مربوط به انعطاف پذیری مشخص و کلی؟ یک رویکر از اسلامایور، اندلس، اسپانیا-2017
Resilience provides a framework to study the dynamics of social-ecological systems (SESs). The inherent com plexity and uncertainty of SESs reveals the necessity for new approaches in management, such as adaptive co management (ACM). The objective of the present research is to analyse the link between ACM and specified/ general resilience debate. For the empirical analysis, a qualitative case-study approach is conducted in Isla Mayor, a southern municipality of Spain with an intensive rice cultivation tradition and a few limited secondary activities such as fishing and tourism. First, we explore five different faces of ACM in Isla Mayor’s rice farming: (1) institution building, (2) power sharing, (3) governance, (4) problem solving, and (5) knowledge co-pro duction, social learning and adaptation. Secondly, we analyse specified and general resilience from two per spectives: (1) stakeholders’ perceptions, (2) adaptive capacity and self-organization. The results highlight the existence of a task-oriented process aimed at solving problems related to the rice activity. This process has contributed to shape a new multi-level governance system and sharing of power between public authorities and local rice farmers, seemingly contributing to an improved rice cultivation specified resilience. However, the lack of collective power and vertical/horizontal links in the governance framework of the remaining socio-economic activities in the region have given rise to some difficulties in their management and interactions with the rice sector, thereby raising barriers to diversify activities and enhance general resilience. The case shows that ACM can provide the opportunity to navigate the trade-offs between specified and general resilience.
Keywords: Adaptive co-management | General resilience | Social-ecological systems | Specified resilience
To mulch or to munch? Big modelling of big data
کود یا جویدن؟ مدل سازی بزرگ داده های بزرگ-2017
African farmers are poorly resourced, highly diverse and aground by poverty traps making them rather impervi ous to change. As a consequence R4D efforts usually result in benefits but also trade-offs that constraint adoption and change. A typical case is the use of crop residues as mulches or as feedstock. Here we linked a database of household surveys with a dynamic whole farm simulation model, to quantify the diversity of trade-offs from the alternative use of crop residues. Simulating all the households in the survey (n = 613) over 99 years of syn thetic climate data, showed that benefits and trade-offs from “mulching or munching” differ across agro-ecolo gies, and within agro-ecologies across typologies of households. Even though trade-offs between household production or income and environmental outcomes could be managed; the magnitude of the simulated benefits from the sustainable intensification of maize-livestock systems were small. Our modelling framework shows the benefits from the integration of socio-economic and biophysical approaches to support the design of develop ment programs. Our results support the argument that a greater focus is required on the development and diver sification of farmers livelihoods within the framework of an improved understanding of the interconnectedness between biophysical, socio-economic and market factors.
Keywords:APSIM|Whole farm modelling|Integrative analyses|Farm diversity
ارزشهای فردی و نظریه رفتار برنامه ریزی شده: مطالعه ای روی تبادلات ارزشها و تعطیلات در افراد بزرگسال و جوان
سال انتشار: 2017 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 3 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 9
مطالعات قبلی از اطلاعات ذاتی موجود در ساختار ارزش های افراد به هنگام بررسی تاثیر آنها روی تصمیمات گردشگری غافل شده اند. این مطالعه بررسی می کند که چگونه ارزش های فردی به همراه ابعاد دوقطبی ارزشها (ارتقای فردی دربرابر تعالی فردی و آزاد بودن برای تغییر دربرابر حفظ و نگهداری) بر تصمیم افراد بزرگسال و جوان به سفر کردن اثر می گذارد. یک ارزیابی دو مرحله ای روی 299 فرد بزرگسال در بار اول به ارزشهای فردی و دربار دوم به اولویت های تفریحی بیانگر ارزش درداخل یک نظریه رفتار برنامه ریزی شده، دست یافت. هردو بُعد دو قطبی ارزشها، نحوه برخورد، هنجارهای ذهنی و کنترل رفتاری مشاهده شده درقبال تفریحات منطبق با ارزشها را پیش بینی می کنند. تاثیر کلی ارزشهای فردی روی قصد مسافرت برای هردو بُعد ، نسبت به تاثیر هنجارهای ذهنی ، بزرگتر بود و همچنین برای بُعد تعالی فردی دربرابر ارتقای فردی، نسبت به کنترل رفتاری مشاهده شده، بزرگتر بود.
کلیدواژه ها: نظریه ارزش استوارتز | سیستمهای ارزش | نظریه رفتار برنامه ریزی شده | تصمیم افراد جوان به مسافرت
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Engineering Democratization in Internet of Things Data Analytics
مهندسی دموکراتیزاسیون در اینترنت اشیاء و تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها-2017
The pervasiveness of Internet of Things devices in techno-socio-economic domains such as Smart Cities and Smart Grids results in a massive scale of data about our society. Decision-making by system operators or policy-makers requires a sophisticated understanding of these data with real-time data analytics methods. However, common data analytics methods often serve exclusively corporate and commercial interests and result in privacy-intrusion, surveillance, profiling and discriminatory actions. This paper illustrates an alternative data analytics approach that relies on participatory citizens to contribute Internet of Things data and crowdsourced computational resources in order to compute aggregation functions in a collective fashion. This democratization calls for a fully decentralized and privacypreserving system design with which a local data management mechanism implemented in smart phones can guarantee highly accurate computations under highly dynamic data streams. Experimental evaluation with real-world Smart Grid data illustrates the performance trade-offs and shows how they can be managed in an automated and empirical way using decision trees.
Sustainable supply chain network design: A case of the wine industry in Australia
طراحی شبکه زنجیره تامین پایدار: مورد صنعت شراب در استرالیا-2017
This paper comes at a time when many companies and people are increasingly facing various global problems linked to sustainability challenges, and when the literature is still scarce on research incor porating all three dimensions of sustainability in supply chain analytical models. The paper conducts a case-based modeling study to address this gap in the area of supply chain network design. We inves tigate the wine supply chain and propose a generic model for sustainable wine supply chain network design encompassing economic, environmental and social objectives. The case company is a real large sized wine company located in Australia, for which a customized model is provided. Both models are formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer program and solved using the augmented ϵ-constraint method by CPLEX. Social implications of the feasible scenarios are examined through introducing social impact coefficients. Non-dominated solutions are obtained and some balanced scenarios are proposed. The results show trade-offs between the objectives, yet more interestingly demonstrate how large is the gap between the existing supply chain configuration and the proposed scenarios in terms of supply chain cost and emissions.
Keywords: Supply chain network design | Sustainability | Multi-objective optimization | Wine industry |Social impact coefficient | Carbon emissions
How Brexit affects EU External Action: the UK’s legacy in European international cooperation
چگونه Brexit بر اعمال خارج از اتحادیه اروپا تاثیر می گذارد: میراث بریتانیا در همکاری بین المللی اروپا-2017
What exactly Brexit means for British engagement in European external affairs and development cooperation, is highly unclear, while its potential impact is considerable. After the general election in the UK on 8 June 2017, uncertainty regarding the direction, process and timing of the Brexit negotiations and the risk of a disorderly separation have risen further. The government position of a ‘hard Brexit’ seems no longer to be carved in stone. Yet, given the expected – total or partial – withdrawal of a major EU member state, like any area of EU politics, also European development policy faces a number of challenges: short-term problems regarding existing legal obligations, looming budget shortfalls and the securing of business continuity as well as the longer-term realignment of EU development policy following the departure of the United Kingdom. There is also the problem of the UK’s succession in international treaties and mixed agreements in which both the EU and the member states are partners, such as trade agreements and memberships of international organisations, global development financing and representation in multilateral forums or negotiations. By qualitative interpretative analysis, and tracing the leave-process, this article discusses possible scenarios and their consequences of Brexit for UK and EU cooperation with developing countries and their implications within the wider context of EU external action. The analysis builds on new-institutionalism and connects to theories of differentiated integration, framing Brexit as a phenomenon of regional dis integration and contributing to the development of instruments for studying such phenomena. While, at this point of time, conclusions are speculative in nature, a strategic foresight would advise to protect development policy as far as possible from the trade-offs of the negotiation gamble and place common goals and values beyond dispute.
Framework for minimising the impact of regional shocks on global food security using multi-objective ant colony optimisation
چارچوب برای به حداقل رساندن تاثیر شوک های منطقه ای بر امنیت غذایی جهانی با استفاده از چند منظوره بهینه سازی کلانشهر-2017
A general framework for the identiﬁcation of optimal strategies for mitigating the impact of regional shocks to the global food production network is introduced. The framework utilises multi-objective ant colony optimisation (ACO) as the optimisation engine and is applicable to production-, demand-, storage- and distribution-focussed mitigation options. A detailed formulation for using trade as the mitigation option is presented and applied to a shock to wheat production in North America for illustrative pur- poses. Different strategies for improving the performance of the ACO algorithm are also presented and tested. Results indicate that the proposed framework has the potential to identify a range of practical trade mitigation strategies for consideration by decision makers, including trade-offs between the extent to which regional shocks can be mitigated and the degree to which existing trade arrangements have to be modiﬁed, as well as the relative importance of various trade agreements and different exporting countries.© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Software availabilityName of Software: FORTS-ACODevelopers: Jonathan Schulz, Peter Golding, Sam Kapadia, Stella NaylorHardware required: PC or Mac Program language: FORTRAN Program size: 7.85 MBContact Address: School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South AustraliaContact E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgSource Code: https://github.com/petergolding/FORTS-ACO Cost: Free for non-commercial use
Keywords:Optimization | Global food security | Shock mitigation | Trade | Ant colony optimization |Search space size reduction
Not made in China: Integration of social sustainability into strategy at Nudie Jeans Co
در چین ساخته نشده است: ادغام پایداری اجتماعی به استراتژی در Nudie Jeans Co-2016
Sustainability concerns have increasingly moved up the corporate agenda, and corporate managers and academics alike stress the need to integrate sustainability into corporate strategy to both create competitive advantages and mitigate sustainability problems. Despite numerous conceptual studies of how sustainability should be integrated in strategy, there are few detailed empirical studies of actual corporate attempts to integrate sustainability into strategy. In this paper, we start to ﬁll this gap based on a study of how the Swedish SME Nudie Jeans Co address worker rights in global value chain by only sourcing from democratic countries with acceptable working conditions. We show that integration of social sustainability into strategy in global value chains is likely to be an emergent process that involves political considerations, traceability and trade-offs in product development. In doing this, we provide a starting point for future empirically grounded research into sustainability and strategy.ã 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: China | Emergent strategy | Global value chains | Political CSR | Private regulation | SME | Sustainability | Sweden