Perception, knowledge and attitudes of small animal practitioners regarding animal abuse and interpersonal violence in Brazil and Colombia
درک ، دانش و نگرش متخصصان حیوانات کوچک در مورد سوء استفاده از حیوانات و خشونت بین فردی در برزیل و کلمبیا-2019
Identification and report of animal abuse by veterinarians are fundamental to the promotion of animal welfare and the prosecution of this crime. Likewise, these professionals have an important responsibility to cope with the cycle of violence. This study aims to characterize the perception, knowledge, and attitudes of small animal practitioners regarding animal abuse and interpersonal violence in Brazil and Colombia. An online survey containing 27 questions was distributed to small animal practitioners of both countries. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was employed to construct relationships among categorical variables and the chi-square statistic was used for testing these relationships. An important number of respondents had suspected that their patients could be victims of animal abuse (Brazil 48.1%; Colombia 64.5%). However, only a minority reported this situation to competent authorities (Brazil 32.7%; Colombia 10.8%). To receive training about veterinary forensics and/or animal welfare sciences in veterinary college was associated with identifying and denouncing animal abuse (p < .05). Deficiency in training received by veterinarians on veterinary forensic and animal welfare science in veterinary college was evident. Despite this, small animal practitioners recognize the existence of an association between animal abuse and interpersonal violence (Brazil 94.2%; Colombia 96.8%). The results highlight the need to strengthen education on animal abuse and promote the participation of veterinarians in the prosecution of this crime in Latin America.
Keywords: Veterinary education | Animal cruelty | Human-animal relationship | Companion animal maltreatment |Link theory
The sensitive prosecutor: Emotional experiences of prosecutors in managing criminal proceedings
دادستان حساس: تجربیات عاطفی دادستان در مدیریت دادرسی کیفری-2019
For over three decades, therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) has produced rich scholarship highlighting the inseparable connection between law and personal wellbeing. Only recently, however, have TJ scholars begun to explore the influence that the lawhas on those practicing it. The current research aimsto contribute to this developing area of study. It explores the “emotional map” of public prosecutors in relation to defendants and crime victims, their awareness to these emotions and the impact that these emotions have on their professional decisions. The research involves in-depth interviews with 14 public prosecutors handling criminal cases in Israeli courts. The qualitative, phenomenological analysis of the documented interviews revealed three exposure levels in which interviewees discussed the emotional aspects of their work. The tension between resisting emotions and accepting them was lurking upon each one of the subjects. Their descriptions of specific raw emotions emerged at the deepest level of exposure, and at that level, anger was the most prominent emotion. Our findings raise some skepticism regarding the prosecutor image as a completely rational and provide the insight that prosecutors emotional world is boiling underneath the surface. Moreover, the exposure of the continuous tension between acceptance and rejection of emotions provides an explanation for the prosecutors difficulty in acknowledging their emotions in full. This tension negatively impacts the prosecutors personal and professional lives inways that resemble psychological symptoms of secondary trauma. The findings may contribute to the development of a “knowledge base” of emotional experiences of prosecutors that could enable the creation of models for regulating and managing emotions of legal agents, for the benefit of litigants, legal agents, and the legal process more broadly
Keywords: Therapeutic jurisprudence | Emotions | Prosecutors | Qualitative research | Anger | Secondary trauma
The dilemma of rape avoidance advice: Acknowledging womens agency without blaming victims of sexual assault
معضل مشاوره برای جلوگیری از تجاوز جنسی: تصدیق آژانس زنان بدون مذمت قربانیان تجاوز جنسی-2019
This article addresses the question of whether there is a legitimate role for rape avoidance advice for women as part of a larger suite of efforts aimed at reducing the prevalence of mens sexual violence. It highlights an apparent dilemma between acknowledging womens agency and placing the blame for sexual violence on perpetrators rather than victims. The article builds upon analysis of the phenomenon of responsibility by moral and political philosophers to suggest a clearer way of thinking about this dilemma. I argue that because causal responsibility is a necessary but not sufficient element of moral responsibility, it is logically possible to hold that some victims could have prevented their rape and at the same time hold they are not blameworthy. I go on to argue that this poses a dilemma for feminists concerned to end rape, in that the practical interests of individual women in avoiding rape might at times be in conflict with womens strategic interests in ensuring that the burden (task responsibility) for ending rape rests with men (as potential perpetrators). I argue that while it is logically possible that some rape avoidance advice could help some women reduce their likelihood of being raped, the legitimate role for rape avoidance advice is circumscribed by its impact on womens strategic interests. The worth of rape avoidance advice in general should not be dismissed out of hand. However, the legitimacy of particular pieces of advice need to be assessed in terms of their impact on womens strategic and practical interests and this will vary depending on the quality and source of the advice
Keywords: Agency | Blame | Victims | Rape prevention | Sexual assault
Legal mobilization in medicine: Nurses, rape kits, and the emergence of forensic nursing in the United States since the 1970s
بسیج حقوقی در پزشکی: پرستاران ، کیت های تجاوز جنسی و ظهور پرستاری پزشکی قانونی در ایالات متحده از دهه 1970-2019
Routine administration of the sexual assault medical forensic exam (commonly known as the “rape kit”) is one of the most significant healthcare reforms advanced by the U.S. anti-rape movement since the 1970s. To promote reform, nurses acted as practitioner-activists in emergency medicine and created the new specialty of forensic nursing to administer the medical forensic exam independent of physicians. Their efforts suggest a new way of conceptualizing the interface of law and medicine: the proactive invocation of criminal law in clinical medicine for the purpose of institutional reform in healthcare organizations, or what I term legal mobilization in medicine. Using the framework of legal mobilization in medicine, I ask: (1) how did nurses mobilize criminal law and rights to health in emergency medicine to facilitate reform? and (2) what were the effects on clinical practice and knowledge production? To chart this history, I draw on a review of published writings by early forensic nurses, interviews with leaders in the field, and ethnographic observation at the 20th anniversary International Association of Forensic Nurses conference in 2012, commemorating the founders and origins of this new specialty. Bringing together scholarship on law and social movements in socio-legal studies and scholarship on health and social movements in science, technology, and medicine studies, I argue that nurses forged a porous boundary between the overlapping institutional spheres of medicine and law in order to align the objectives of medical care and criminal investigation and, thereby, seek rights to healthcare and rights to justice for patientvictims through the enactment of new medical routines. I demonstrate the historical emergence of a novel, hybrid form of professional jurisdiction and medical practice, and I explore its benefits as well as its unintended consequences. I conclude by discussing the ethical implications of this case for the use of medical evidence to corroborate rape.
Keywords: United States | Forensic nursing | Rape kit | Sexual assault medical forensic exam | Legal mobilization in medicine
A flow-based approach for Trickbot banking trojan detection
یک رویکرد مبتنی بر جریان برای شناسایی تروجان بانکی Trickbot-2019
Nowadays, online banking is an attractive way of carrying out financial operations such as ecommerce, e-banking, and e-payments without much effort or the need of any physi- cal presence. This increasing popularity in online banking services and payment systems has created motivation for financial attackers to steal customer‘s credentials and money. Banking trojans have been a way of committing attacks on these financial institutions for more than a decade, and they have become one of the primary drivers of botnet traffic. How- ever, the stealthy nature of financial botnets requires new techniques and novel systems for detection and analysis in order to prevent losses and to ultimately take the botnets down. TrickBot, which specifically threatens businesses in the financial sector and their customers, has been behind man-in-the-browser attacks since 2016. Its main goal is to steal online banking information from victims when they visit their banking websites. In this study, we utilize machine learning techniques to detect TrickBot malware infections and to identify TrickBot related traffic flows without having to analyze network packet payloads, the IP addresses, port numbers and protocol information. Since command and control server IPs are updated almost daily, identification of TrickBot related traffic flows without looking at specific IP addresses is significant. We adopt behavior-based classification that uses artifacts created by the malware during the dynamic analysis of TrickBot malware samples. We compare the performance results of four different state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms, Random Forest, Sequential Minimal Optimization, Multilayer Perceptron, and Logistic Model to identify TrickBot related flows and detect a TrickBot infection. Then, we optimize the proposed classifier via exploring the best hyperparameter and feature set selection. Looking at network packet identifiers such as packet length, packet and flag counts, and inter-arrival times, the Random Forest classifier identifies TrickBot related flows with 99.9534% accuracy, 91.7% true positive rate.
Keywords:Trickbot | Banking trojan | Machine learning | Anomaly traffic detection | Dynamic analysis | Random Fores
State of damage to and support for victims of motor vehicle accidents in Japan
وضعیت آسیب و پشتیبانی قربانیان حوادث وسایل نقلیه موتوری در ژاپن-2019
Individuals are likely to be involved in at least one motor vehicle accident (MVA) during their lifetime.MVAs can have a significant impact on both the victimsand their families; in the case of death, the bereaved familymay face mental health problems. Ongoing studies have focused on devising strategies to support victims and their families who face such problems. This paper clarifies the reality of mental health issues ofMVA victims and reviews the current state of victimsupport available in Japan, its significance and other relevant issues. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) inMVA survivors has been estimated to be 8%–45% one month after the accident and 6%–40% six months after the accident. The mental health of the survivors families, bereaved families, and orphaned children are usually affected afterMVAs. Bereaved families experience not only PTSD but also symptoms of complicated grief. Based on studies using different scales to measure symptoms and other items, symptoms of PTSD and complicated grief have been seen in 17%–75% and 6%–61% of bereaved families, respectively, which were much higher than those observed in the general population. In addition to the actual physical andmental damage caused byMVAs, it is necessary to take notice of survivors who are exposed to post-accident secondary victimization. Justice agencies, such as the National Police Agency andMinistry of Justice Investigation Bureau, as well as victim support centers and self-help groups, provide support to MVA victims. To a certain extent, evaluating support provided to MVA victims and their families is possible by initiating assistance promptly and actively using leaflets, brochures, and other materials. The literature reports thatwomen are at increased risk for developing PTSD and complicated grief; also,men and women use differentmechanisms for coping with stress.Moreover, men tend not to express their pain and try to manage it on their own. Thus, support that is appropriate for both sexes must be provided. In the future, the effectiveness of the support provided should be evaluated by survivors. Whether acute-phase support leads to improvement in survivors long-term prognoses must also be investigated.
Keywords: Motor vehicle accidents | MVA victims | Bereaved family | Social support | Self-help groups | Sex differences
Ethical loneliness and the development of a victim-focused approach to rape cases in South Africa
تنهایی اخلاقی و توسعه رویکرد متمرکز بر قربانیان در مورد پرونده های تجاوز جنسی در آفریقای جنوبی-2019
In this article, I focus on the rape trial of the former South African president, Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma. I have chosen this specific case as it was extensively documented, both in the media and academically, with the main focus being on how the court had relied on gender-stereotyping in coming to its conclusion that the accused was not guilty as well as the degrading onslaught the victim experienced by communities around her. I look at the courts reliance on evidence of previous sexual history in finding that the complainant (Khwezi) was, in fact, an unreliable witness. I endeavour to show how the reliance of the court on rape stereotypes can be humiliating, degrading and one of the causes of secondary victimisation. I argue that Khwezis harmful experience of the criminal justice system is common to many victims in rape cases. I then proceed to argue that the experience of Khwezi (and many other rape survivors) can be described as what Stauffer calls, ‘ethical loneliness’. As one outlet for this loneliness, I suggest the development of the South African criminal law, which can be applied to criminal law universally, to shift the focus of rape trials from being accused-focused to victim-focused. Through this process, I argue, that law can begin to influence change in the reluctance of society to hear the story of rape survivors and help to create a safe space in communities for survivors to be heard.
Keywords: Rape | Secondary-victimisation | Criminal law | Criminal trials | Victim-focused | Silencing | Evidence
Cyberhate: A review and content analysis of intervention strategies
Cyberhate: مرور و تحلیل محتوای استراتژی های مداخله-2019
This paper presents a review of intervention programmes against cyberhate. Over the last decade, the preoccupation over the use of electronic means of communication as a tool to convey hate, racist and xenophobic contents rose tremendously. NGOs, legal professionals, private companies, and civil society have developed interventions but little is known about their impact. For this review we followed the method and protocol from the guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook for Systematic Reviews and the Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice guidelines. The review identified three key intervention areas: law, technology and education through the empowerment of the individuals under the form of counter-speech. No specific intervention towards aggressors was found and most projects focus on prevention or victims through confidence building and skills learning to speak out, report and potentially react in an appropriate way. We did not find any rigorously assessed interventions, which highlights a gap in research and stresses the need for this type of studies. The evaluation of effectiveness of interventions needs to be included in the near future research agenda. Up to now, although intentions are good, we have no evidence that the steps that are undertaken are effective in preventing and reducing cyberhate.
Keywords: Cyberhate | Youth | Intervention | Review | Literature review
Examining institutional work that perpetuates abuse in sport organizations
بررسی کار نهادی که باعث سوء استفاده در سازمانهای ورزشی می شود-2019
In this research, the author sought to understand how organizational practices that harbor and, ultimately, perpetuate abuse become legitimized. The authors drew from the tenets of institutional work to understand how institutional structures were created and legitimized to allow abuse to perpetuate within sport organizations. In examining the sexual abuse scandals of Penn State University, Baylor University, and Michigan State University, the authors found that university administrators and stakeholders obscured reporting and investigative processes, enacted internal discipline structures that were uncompliant from formal regulations, valorized the perpetrators and university leadership, silenced victims, and engaged in collusion. The authors theorized these actions as legitimacy work designed to legitimize the universities’ management of abuse. In effect, these actions contributed to the harboring and perpetuation of abuse. The implications for the study and management of abuse in sport are discussed.
Keywords: Abuse | Institutional work | Legitimacy
Violence against health professionals and facilities in China: Evidence from criminal litigation records
خشونت علیه متخصصان و امکانات بهداشتی و درمانی در چین: شواهدی از سوابق دادرسی کیفری-2019
Objectives: This study aims to extend the current understanding of violence against health professionals and facilities in China, with data from an authoritative, national-representative, but under-researched data source – litigation records, and discuss implications for developing violence prevention strategies. Design: We collected all legal cases relevant to violence against health professionals and facilities from criminal ligation records released by the Supreme Court of China from 2010 to 2016. Main outcome measures: (i) Characteristics of perpetrators: gender, age, education, occupation, history of mental illness and alcohol; (ii) characteristics of victims: medical specialization, location, type of violence; (iii) outcome of treatment. Results: 140 cases were collected for analysis. Beating, pushing, verbal abuse, threatening, burning mock paper money, placing a corpse in the hospital, hanging banners, blocking hospital gates and doors, and smashing hospital property were the most frequently reported types of violence. Specifically following patient deaths, the interval between a patients death and violence by the patients families and friends was short, with 51% happening on the same day. Conclusions: Our study provides a comprehensive overview of violence against health professionals and facilities in China, which can be used to inform the development of prevention strategies.
Keywords: Violence against health professionals | Criminal litigation records | Health system reform | Health policy