Inclusiveness by design? Reviewing sustainable electricity access and entrepreneurship from a gender perspective
شمول طراحی شده توسط؟ بررسی دسترسی پایدار به برق و کارآفرینی از منظر جنسیت-2019
There is a substantial literature analysing the role of electricity as a catalyst for economic development. However, there are significant knowledge gaps in whether such systems are or can indeed be designed in a gender sensitive way to promote equal opportunity for socially inclusive entrepreneurship at the local level. We make three main contributions with this paper. First, we carry out a literature review to unpack the genderelectricity- entrepreneurship nexus by identifying the agenda of the gender-energy and gender-entrepreneurship literature respectively and how they intersect and understand gender over time. Second, we synthesise key factors identified as hindering and driving empowerment in relation to electricity and entrepreneurship and identify the weaknesses of the respective literature. Third, we outline the contours of the conceptual intersection and develop a framework which shows how electricity systems can be designed to become favourable and economically empowering for both men and women. Furthermore, we demonstrate how local value chains can benefit from this electric inclusiveness. Finally, with our framework, we develop recommendations for strategic action and identify points of intervention in policy, planning, design and operation of electricity systems.
Keywords: Gender and energy | Gender and entrepreneurship | Electricity access | Women’s empowerment
Improving Workflow Efficiency for Mammography Using Machine Learning
بهبود بهره وری گردش کار برای ماموگرافی با استفاده از یادگیری ماشین-2019
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether machine learning could reduce the number of mammograms the radiologist must read by using a machine-learning classifier to correctly identify normal mammograms and to select the uncertain and abnormal examinations for radiological interpretation. Methods: Mammograms in a research data set from over 7,000 women who were recalled for assessment at six UK National Health Service Breast Screening Program centers were used. A convolutional neural network in conjunction with multitask learning was used to extract imaging features from mammograms that mimic the radiological assessment provided by a radiologist, the patient’s nonimaging features, and pathology outcomes. A deep neural network was then used to concatenate and fuse multiple mammogram views to predict both a diagnosis and a recommendation of whether or not additional radiological assessment was needed. Results: Ten-fold cross-validation was used on 2,000 randomly selected patients from the data set; the remainder of the data set was used for convolutional neural network training. While maintaining an acceptable negative predictive value of 0.99, the proposed model was able to identify 34% (95% confidence interval, 25%-43%) and 91% (95% confidence interval: 88%-94%) of the negative mammograms for test sets with a cancer prevalence of 15% and 1%, respectively. Conclusion: Machine learning was leveraged to successfully reduce the number of normal mammograms that radiologists need to read without degrading diagnostic accuracy.
Key Words: Breast cancer | deep learning | machine learning | mammography | radiology
Factors associated with female genital cutting in Yemen and its policy implications
عوامل مرتبط با قطع دستگاه تناسلی زنان در یمن و پیامدهای سیاسی آن-2019
Background: A tremendous number of girls in Yemen are still subjected to female genital cutting (FGC), which carries an increased risk of health complications and violates children’s rights. This study describes the prevalence of FGC in four Yemeni provinces and investigates the determinants of FGC. Methods: We analyzed data from women aged 15 to 49 years who responded to a sub-national house- hold survey conducted in six rural districts of four Yemeni provinces in 20 08–20 09. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between individual and household socioeconomic factors and FGC practices and attitudes. Results: The prevalence of women’s FGC was 48% while daughters’ FGC was 34%. Almost 45.8% of the women surveyed believe the FGC practice should discontinue. Higher odds of FGC practice and positive attitude towards it were associated with older age, family marriage, and lower tertiles of wealth and education indices. Early marriage was also associated with increased odds of FGC practice ( p < 0.01). Conclusions: Socioeconomic indices and other individual factors associated with FGC are differing and complex. Younger generations of women are more likely to not have FGC and to express negative atti- tudes towards the tradition. Appropriate strategies to invest in girls’ education and women’s empower- ment with effective engagement of religious and community leaders might support the change of atti- tudes and practice of FGC in the younger generation.
Keywords: Female genital mutilation | Circumcision | Women’s health | Socioeconomic factors | Equity | Yemen
The reality behind the Istanbul convention: Shattering conservative delusions
واقعیت پشت پرده کنوانسیون استانبول: شکستن پندار محافظه کاری-2019
This paper analyzes the long process of ratification of the Istanbul Convention in Croatia and its political instrumentalization. The Convention was ratified in 2018, following a strong anti-ratification campaign which exemplifies the strengthening of a global pushback against womens rights. The conservative movement behind this campaign, which is still ongoing - with the shifted goal of withdrawing from the Convention through the mechanism of referendum, spread a number of misconceptions about the Convention, based foremost on the narrative that the Convention would impose an undesirable “gender ideology”. The aim of this paper is to shatter these delusions by first deconstructing the notions of gender, gender ideology and gender-based violence, and then by exploring the extent to which gender (identity) already plays a role within Croatian legal system, including through the jurisprudence of the ECtHR. The last part focuses on particular positive novelties the Istanbul Convention will bring to Croatian society.
Keywords: Sex | Gender | Gender-based violence | Istanbul convention | Gender ideology | Stereotypes
From Slutwalks to Nirbhaya: Shifts in the Indian womens movement
از Slutwalks به Nirbhaya دگرگونی در جنبش زنان هند-2019
This paper takes a closer look at two significant mass-based feminist movements in India – Slutwalks and Nirbhaya agitation. Key questions guiding this paper are – why did Slut Walk Delhi, characterized as a ‘movement’ against victim blaming and sexual harassment fail to build momentum despite attempts at mobilization? What changed a year later that made Nirbhaya agitation a ‘successful mobilization’? In exploring these questions, the paper interrogates the tactics, discursive politics, and impact of these mobilizations on contemporary Indian womens movement; and argues that they mark an important moment of foregrounding debates on affirmative sexuality.
Keywords: Slutwalks | Nirbhaya | Indian womens movement | Protests | Urban public spaces | Police order | Sexuality
The dilemma of rape avoidance advice: Acknowledging womens agency without blaming victims of sexual assault
معضل مشاوره برای جلوگیری از تجاوز جنسی: تصدیق آژانس زنان بدون مذمت قربانیان تجاوز جنسی-2019
This article addresses the question of whether there is a legitimate role for rape avoidance advice for women as part of a larger suite of efforts aimed at reducing the prevalence of mens sexual violence. It highlights an apparent dilemma between acknowledging womens agency and placing the blame for sexual violence on perpetrators rather than victims. The article builds upon analysis of the phenomenon of responsibility by moral and political philosophers to suggest a clearer way of thinking about this dilemma. I argue that because causal responsibility is a necessary but not sufficient element of moral responsibility, it is logically possible to hold that some victims could have prevented their rape and at the same time hold they are not blameworthy. I go on to argue that this poses a dilemma for feminists concerned to end rape, in that the practical interests of individual women in avoiding rape might at times be in conflict with womens strategic interests in ensuring that the burden (task responsibility) for ending rape rests with men (as potential perpetrators). I argue that while it is logically possible that some rape avoidance advice could help some women reduce their likelihood of being raped, the legitimate role for rape avoidance advice is circumscribed by its impact on womens strategic interests. The worth of rape avoidance advice in general should not be dismissed out of hand. However, the legitimacy of particular pieces of advice need to be assessed in terms of their impact on womens strategic and practical interests and this will vary depending on the quality and source of the advice
Keywords: Agency | Blame | Victims | Rape prevention | Sexual assault
State of damage to and support for victims of motor vehicle accidents in Japan
وضعیت آسیب و پشتیبانی قربانیان حوادث وسایل نقلیه موتوری در ژاپن-2019
Individuals are likely to be involved in at least one motor vehicle accident (MVA) during their lifetime.MVAs can have a significant impact on both the victimsand their families; in the case of death, the bereaved familymay face mental health problems. Ongoing studies have focused on devising strategies to support victims and their families who face such problems. This paper clarifies the reality of mental health issues ofMVA victims and reviews the current state of victimsupport available in Japan, its significance and other relevant issues. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) inMVA survivors has been estimated to be 8%–45% one month after the accident and 6%–40% six months after the accident. The mental health of the survivors families, bereaved families, and orphaned children are usually affected afterMVAs. Bereaved families experience not only PTSD but also symptoms of complicated grief. Based on studies using different scales to measure symptoms and other items, symptoms of PTSD and complicated grief have been seen in 17%–75% and 6%–61% of bereaved families, respectively, which were much higher than those observed in the general population. In addition to the actual physical andmental damage caused byMVAs, it is necessary to take notice of survivors who are exposed to post-accident secondary victimization. Justice agencies, such as the National Police Agency andMinistry of Justice Investigation Bureau, as well as victim support centers and self-help groups, provide support to MVA victims. To a certain extent, evaluating support provided to MVA victims and their families is possible by initiating assistance promptly and actively using leaflets, brochures, and other materials. The literature reports thatwomen are at increased risk for developing PTSD and complicated grief; also,men and women use differentmechanisms for coping with stress.Moreover, men tend not to express their pain and try to manage it on their own. Thus, support that is appropriate for both sexes must be provided. In the future, the effectiveness of the support provided should be evaluated by survivors. Whether acute-phase support leads to improvement in survivors long-term prognoses must also be investigated.
Keywords: Motor vehicle accidents | MVA victims | Bereaved family | Social support | Self-help groups | Sex differences
Gendered drug policy: Motherisk and the regulation of mothering in Canada
سیاست مواد مخدر جنسیتی: Motherisk و تنظیم مادرانگی در کانادا-2019
Background: Due to misinformation and enduring discourses about pregnant women and mothers suspected of using drugs, these women continue to experience systemic discrimination. In 2014, this fact was once again made public in Canada when the Ontario government established an independent review of hair testing practices conducted by Motherisk Drug Testing Laboratory (MDTL) at Torontos Hospital for Sick Kids. Between 2005 and 2015, MDTL tested the hair of more than 16,000 individuals for drug consumption. The results were introduced as evidence in court and resulted in both temporary and permanent loss of custody of children. Tragically, it was later discovered that the hair testing results were unreliable. This paper provides an analysis of child protection policies and practices directed at pregnant women and mothers suspected of using drugs, with a focus on the Motherisk tragedy in Ontario. Methods: Informed by feminist and critical drug perspectives, this study draws from findings in the 2015″Report of the Motherisk Hair Analysis Independent Review," produced by Honourable Susan Lang, and provides a Bacchi-informed critical analysis of Commissioner Beamans 2018 report of the Motherisk Commission, "Harmful Impacts: The Reliance on Hair Testing in Child Protection" (HI). Results: The HI report is quite sympathetic to the plight of families and it acknowledges systemic issues and unequal power relations between families, social workers and the courts. Even though drug testing is an inadequate measure of parenting capacity, the HI report does not recommend banning the practice. In the HI report, the themes of harm reduction and drug prohibition are notably absent — while the use of gender-neutral terms, such as "parent" and "families," render mothers invisible. Conclusions: The Motherisk tragedy cannot be understood as an isolated event, rather it is part of a continuum of state and gendered violence against poor, Indigenous, and Black women in Canada. The HI report fails to consider how prohibitionist discourses about drugs, addiction, mothering, and risk lead to institutional practices such as drug testing and child apprehension.
Keywords: Motherisk | Women | Race | Drug testing | Child apprehension
Medico-legal considerations and operative vaginal delivery
ملاحظات پزشکی قانونی و زایمان واژینال عملیاتی-2019
Women undergo operative vaginal delivery (OVD) as an alternative to caesarean section when complications arise in the second stage of labour. The perinatal mortality associated with OVD is very low, and most of the perinatal morbidity is minor. However, when serious adverse events occur, such as traumatic birth injury, shoulder dystocia, cerebral palsy and perinatal death, there are medico-legal implications. There is also the potential for litigation in relation to maternal pelvic floor injury, which is increased with OVD. Obstetricians performing and supervising OVDs need to be aware of the potential pitfalls and minimise the risk of adverse outcomes. Given that most obstetricians will be involved in adverse birth-related events, it is important that they are aware of the legal processes that may ensue. It is also important when reviewing adverse OVD-related outcomes that association is differentiated from causation. These issues are addressed in the current chapter with attention drawn to the Montgomery ruling, which redefines the legal standards expected in relation to informed consent.
Keywords: Operative vaginal delivery (OVD) | Serious adverse events | Litigation | Medico-legal | Causation | Montgomery ruling
The Irish Journey: Removing the shackles of abortion restrictions in Ireland
سفر ایرلند: برداشتن موارد محدودیت سقط جنین در ایرلند-2019
In May 2018, the Irish electorate voted to remove from the Constitution one of the most restrictive abortion bans in the world. This referendum followed 35 years of legal cases, human rights advocacy, feminist activism and governmental and parliamentary processes. The reframing of abortion as an issue of womens health rather than foetal rights was crucial to the success of law reform efforts. The new law, enacted in 2018, provides for access to abortion on a womans request up to 12 weeks of pregnancy and in situations of risk to the life or of serious harm to the health of the pregnant woman and fatal foetal anomaly thereafter. Abortion is now broadly accessible in Ireland; however, continued advocacy is needed to ensure that the state meets international human rights standards and that access to abortion care and abortion rights is fully secured into the law.
Keywords: Abortion | Ireland | Human rights | Advocacy | Legalisation