Female board directorship and firm performance: What really matters?
ریاست هیئت زنان و عملکرد شرکت: چه چیزی واقعا اهمیت دارد؟-2018
Using a sample of 394 French firms for the period of 2001 to 2010, we study the relationship between female directorship and firms’ accounting (ROA and ROE) and market-based (Tobins Q) performance. We find that female directorship significantly increases ROA and ROE, and significantly decreases Tobins Q. We postulate that these relationships are affected by the attributes of female directors. To this end, we collect a set of nine different attributes of female directors capturing their monitoring capabilities and contribution to the boards human capital (demographic and board relational attributes). We find that the positive relationship between accounting performance and female directorship remains when we include these attributes, while the negative relationship between Tobins Q and female directorship disappears. Interestingly, the different attributes of female directors do not uniformly affect accounting and market-based performance. We explain the different relationships between attributes and firm performance by the tradeoff between the benefits and costs of diversity on board effectiveness, particularly in a low investor protection environment.
keywords: Female directorship |Women directors’ attributes |Firm performance
Big Data to Assess Potential Pregnancy-Related Cardiovascular Complications of Difficult LabourdOriginal Investigator-Driven Research Is Not Dead!
داده های بزرگ برای ارزیابی عوارض قلبی عروقی مرتبط با بارداری ناشی از کار دشواری تحقیقات اصلی محققان از بین نرفته است-2018
Medical silos have rightly been castigated for providing inef ficient care. However, the negative effect fragmentation of health services has on medical research is rarely considered, particularly when outcomes might occur several years down stream. In this issue of the Canadian Journal of Cardiology, Kahane and colleagues address this shortcoming by reporting their study of dysfunctional uterine activity in la bour and subsequent premature adverse cardiac events.1 This population-based cohort study examined 1,608,720 Ontario women from 1992 to 2016 with 1 singleton hospital live birth at 24-41 weeks’ gestation. The primary exposure of interest was a prolonged first stage of labour and the main outcome was a composite of heart failure, cardiomyopathy, or dysrhythmia occurring after the index delivery. A covariate adjusted survival analysis with a median follow-up of > 10 years produced a hazard ratio of 1.09 (95% confidence in terval, 0.87-1.36), leading to the authors’ conclusion that women with prolonged labour do not appear to be at a higher short-term risk for these cardiac outcomes. This report raises several interesting questions. In the first place, why even study this association? Next, are the conclusions reliable? Finally, do the results matter?
Education, leadership, and conservation: Empowering young Q’eqchi’ women in Guatemala
آموزش، رهبری و محافظه کاری: توانمندسازی زنان جوان کوئچی در گواتمالا-2018
Programs to keep young women in school across the developing world have become widespread. Education is key to improving their quality of life, but keeping them in school is a significant challenge. This article examines a scholarship program that provides 25 days of intensive leadership training for young indigenous women using a peer tutorial system. The program offers a unique experience, a variety of practical training, opportunities for personal growth, and evidence of empowerment. This study demonstrates that social change is occurring and that young women are promoting change in their own lives, as well as those of their families and communities.
keywords: Education |Young women |Empowerment |Environmental education |Guatemala
Just add women and stir?: Education, gender and peacebuilding in Uganda
فقط زنان را اضافه کن و تحریک کن: آموزش، جنسیت و ایجاد صلح در اوگاندا-2018
Although Uganda is not short of policies and strategies to promote gender equality, women’s political and social agency remains significantly low. Reasons are rooted in two main challenges: persisting structural barriers; and low levels of education among women. Both are most prevalent in the country’s conflict-affected sub-regions. Against this backdrop, we explore and critically reflect on the interplay of education, gender and peacebuilding. We showcase how gender-responsive approaches in education at the macro-level have traditionally been based on initiatives that embrace gender equality by means of a “just add women and stir approach” thereby side-lining history, cultural sensitivity and context.
keywords: Gender |Peace |building |Education |Social transformation |Uganda
حتی زن و شوهرها هم به یک تعطیلات نیاز دارند: واکنش های زنان به مسافرت بدون شوهرانشان
سال انتشار: 2017 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 6 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 25
"سفر کردن دخترها باهم" گفته شده است که به صورت بالقوه ای میزان رضایتمندی یک فرد از انتخاب های تفریحی را افزایش داده و به صورت بالقوه ای رضاینتمدی از رابطه زن و شوهر را بهبود می بخشد (دورکو و پتریک 2015؛ کاوالاری 2008؛ بوند 2008). این مطالعه کیفی به دنبال شناسایی دلایل مسافرت زنان بدون شوهرانشان و تاثیری که این استراحت ها ممکن است روی رابطه آنها و رضایتمندی آنها از استراحت داشته باشد می باشد. زنانی به چند دلیل کلی بدون شوهرانشان به مسافرت می روند: قیدهای زنانه، محدودیت های شخصی شوهر، فرار از روزمره گی ها و نیاز به تنهایی. اکثریت عظیمی از پاسخ دهنده ها بر این اعتقاد بودند که مسافرت کردن به صورت جدا از شریک زندگی، یک مولفه سودمند از یک رابطه سالم و عاشقانه است. تقریبا" همه آنها از استراحت کردن بدون شریک زندگی راضی بودند و اگر شریک زندگی آنها در این سفر به آنها ملحق می شد میزان رضایت آنها کمتر می شد. تقریبا" دو سوم آنها احساس می کردند که روابط آنها مثل بعد از مسافرت بوده است، درحالیکه 31% اعتقاد داشتند که سفر کردن روابط آنها را بهبود داده است. به علاوه روابط با همسفران نیز ارتقا یافته است. دلالت های بازاریابی و عملی برای صنعت گردشگری نیز ارائه می شود.
کلیدواژه ها: سودهای سفر | مسافرت های زنانه | رضایت از تفریح | رضایت از رابطه
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Uncovering human social networks in coping with Lake Chilwa recessions in Malawi
کشف شبکه های اجتماعی انسانی در مقابله با رکود های دریاچه چیلوا در مالاوی-2017
This paper provides an in-depth understanding of social dynamics in the form of kinship ties in matrilineal societies. It unpacks gender roles and relationships at the community level to understand how social structures, created by the pattern of relations, enhance or hinder coping initiatives during lake recessions in the Lake Chilwa socio-ecological system. Using qualitative and quantitative methods including in-depth interviews, Focus Group Discussions (FGD) and household questionnaires, this paper provides insights into how people in the Lake Chilwa social-ecological system prepare for and cope with Lake Chilwa water recessions by capitalising on their social networks. The findings have shown that during lake recessions poor households in the Lake Chilwa socio-ecological system are cushioned by fellow households through lineage networks. There is strong tradition secured through kinship ties where the generic term ‘mwambo wathu’ (our tradition) embraces a group of formative norms enforced via a series of rules and rituals. Based in a matrilineal system, women have strong rights over land allocation and use in which the female sorority group ‘mbumba’ is very stable. There is a great deal of reciprocity and food redistribution among the households. This self-organization provides deeper meaning about how people assimilate the dynamics affecting their social and natural environments. Specifically the findings provide evidence on how households, communities and their livelihoods in Africa are reconstructed as natural resources fluctuate.
Keywords: Coping | Lake Chilwa | Livelihoods | Networks | Socio-ecological system
Relation between social network and psychological distress among middle-aged adults in Japan: Evidence from a national longitudinal survey
رابطه بین شبکه اجتماعی و پریشانی روانی میان بزرگسالان سالخورده ژاپن: شواهدی از یک مرور طولی ملی-2017
It is widely documented that psychological distress is negatively associated with social networks involvement. However, despite the theoretical postulations that social networks are crucial for alleviating psychological distress, no study has yet empirically confirmed the causality of this relationship. Thus, we used the random-effects generalized least squares method to investigate the effect of one- and two-year lagged values for involvement in social networks on psychological distress. Nine years of longitudinal data were extracted from a nationally representative survey in Japan (“The Longitudinal Survey of Middle-aged and Older Persons”). We utilized the Kessler 6 (K6) score to measure psychological distress among 15,242 respondents aged 50e59 years in the baseline year (2005), and stratified participants into three layers of social networks: inner (well-established friendship ties and participating in hobby acti vates), intermediary (neighborly ties), and outer (involvement in community activities). We found highly significant and negative associations between all three layers and K6 scores, with the strongest associ ation being for the inner layer. We further observed that one-year lagged involvement in the inner and intermediary layers led to significantly lower K6 scores. However, the protective influences of social networks generally diminished over time. In addition, the protective influences of social network involvement on psychological distress were stronger for women than for men. Furthermore, involvement in social networks was especially important for improving mental health among people with psycho logical distress. These findings would be important for policymaking to prevent mental health deteri oration among middle-aged adults in Japan.
Keywords: Social networks | Psychological distress | K6 | Main effects model | Stress-buffering model | Longitudinal national survey | Japan
Female sex tourism in Jamaica: An assessment of perceptions
گردشگری جنسی زن در جامائیکا: ارزیابی ادراکات-2017
Much has been said about tourist sexual behavior in the Global South. These studies range from those who view mens and womens sexual sojourn as distinctly different activities (sex versus romance tourism respectively) to those who consider sex and romance tourism as independent of sexed and gendered bodies. This work attempts to assess this critical aspect of tourism in Jamaica. Through data collection in two phases and using mixed methodology, the study seeks to assess the perception of local hotel workers and female tourists to the issue of sex and romance tourism. Findings indicate that while male and female hotel workers tend to view men as searching for sex and women for romance, female tourists are largely discrediting the perception that men and women seek disntictly different things while on vacation. The paper argues that there is therefore need to shift the paradigm of sex tourism research to include a wider range of perceptions. The implications for destination marketing are then discussed.
Keywords: Sex tourism | Romance tourism | Visitor perceptions | Hotel worker perceptions
Personality traits and psychological motivations predicting selfie posting behaviors on social networking sites
ویژگی های شخصیتی و انگیزه های روان شناختی پیش بینی رفتارهای حرکت شخصی خود در سایت های شبکه های اجتماعی-2017
This study examined the relationships between narcissism, the Big 5 personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience), the need for popularity, the need to belong, and various types of selfie posting behaviors— posting solo selfies, selfies with a group, and editing selfies. Results of the survey (N = 260) indicated that after controlling for overall social media use and demographic factors (i.e., age, gender), narcissism significantly predicted the frequency of posting solo selfies and editing selfies. Age moderated the relationship between narcissism and the frequency of posting group selfies. Posting group selfies was predicted by extraversion and agreeable ness and the need for popularity. The need for popularity also predicted the frequency of posting solo selfies, but not of selfie editing. Furthermore, findings revealed that gender moderated the relationship between the need for popularity and posting solo selfies, such that the need for popularity predicted posting solo selfies among men, but not among women. The need to belong was not associated with any of the selfie behaviors. Interpretations and implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords: Selfie | Self-presentation | Social media | Personality traits | Narcissism | The need for popularity
Gender and professional e-networks: Implications of gender heterophily on job search facilitation and outcomes
شبکه های جنسیتی و شبکه های الکترونیکی حرفه ای: تاثیرات عدم توافق جنسیتی در تسهیل جستجوی شغلی و نتایج-2017
A lack of access to high stature, typically male, professional contacts and the social capital they provide is one likely barrier to womens career advancement. The increasing use of electronic professional networking sites is making these high value contacts more accessible and changing the composition characteristics of peoples professional networks; yet limited research explores e-networks in profes sional contexts. This study examines the role of gender heterophily on e-network facilitation and, in turn, on a set of job-search related outcomes through a survey of full-time, salaried LinkedIn users. We find that womens e-networks are characterized by greater gender heterophilly than mens. E-networks comprised of high proportions of ties with men enabled individuals to experience shorter job search duration and attain higher salaries. These effects were partially explained by the increased likelihood of receiving direct assistance from a network contact to secure new employment (i.e. network facilitation).
Keywords: e-network | Professional network | Social network | Heterophily | Job search