Intelligent context-aware fog node discovery
کشف گره مه آگاه از زمینه هوشمند-2022
Fog computing has been proposed as a mechanism to address certain issues in cloud computing such as latency, storage, network bandwidth, etc. Fog computing brings the processing, storage, and networking to the edge of the network near the edge devices, which we called fog consumers. This decreases latency, network bandwidth, and response time. Discovering the most relevant fog node, the nearest one to the fog consumers, is a critical challenge that is yet to be addressed by the research. In this study, we present the Intelligent and Distributed Fog node Discovery mechanism (IDFD) which is an intelligent approach to enable fog consumers to discover appropriate fog nodes in a context-aware manner. The proposed approach is based on the distributed fog registries between fog consumers and fog nodes that can facilitate the discovery process of fog nodes. In this study, the KNN, K-d tree, and brute force algorithms are used to discover fog nodes based on the context-aware criteria of fog nodes and fog consumers. The proposed framework is simulated using OMNET++, and the performance of the proposed algorithms is compared based on performance metrics and execution time. The accuracy and execution time are the major points of consideration in the selection of an optimal fog search algorithm. The experiment results show that the KNN and K-d tree algorithms achieve the same accuracy results of 95 %. However, the K-d tree method takes less time to find the nearest fog nodes than KNN and brute force. Thus, the K-d tree is selected as the fog search algorithm in the IDFD to discover the nearest fog nodes very efficiently and quickly.
keywords: Fog node | Discovery | Context-aware | Intelligent | Fog node discovery
Resource Management for Edge Intelligence (EI)-Assisted IoV Using Quantum-Inspired Reinforcement Learning
مدیریت منابع برای IoV به کمک هوش لبه (EI) با استفاده از یادگیری تقویتی الهام گرفته از پردازش کوانتومی-2022
Recent developments in the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) enable interconnected vehicles to support ubiquitous services. Various emerging service applications are promising to increase the Quality of Experience (QoE) of users. On-board computation tasks generated by these applications have heavily overloaded the resource-constrained vehicles, forcing it to offload on-board tasks to other edge intelligence (EI)-assisted servers. However, excessive task offloading can lead to severe competition for communication and computation resources among vehicles, thereby increasing the processing latency, energy consumption, and system cost. To address these problems, we investigate the transmission-awareness and computing-sense uplink resource management problem and formulate it as a time-varying Markov decision process. Considering the total delay, energy consumption, and cost, quantum-inspired reinforcement learning (QRL) is proposed to develop an intelligence-oriented edge offloading strategy. Specifically, the vehicle can flexibly choose the network access mode and offloading strategy through two different radio interfaces to offload tasks to multiaccess edge computing (MEC) servers through WiFi and cloud servers through 5G. The objective of this joint optimization is to maintain a self-adaptive balance between these two aspects. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the transmission latency and computation delay.
Index Terms: Cloud computing | edge intelligence (EI) | Internet of Vehicles (IoV) | multiaccess edge computing (MEC) | quantum-inspired reinforcement learning (QRL)
Non-functional requirements elicitation for edge computing
استخراج الزامات غیر عملکردی برای محاسبات لبه-2022
The proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) devices and advances in their computing capabilities give an impetus to the Edge Computing (EC) paradigm that can facilitate localize computing and data storage. As a result, limitations like network connectivity issues, data mobility constraints, and real-time processing delays, in Cloud computing can be addressed more efficiently. EC can create a lot of opportunities across the breadth of the IT domains and cyber–physical systems. Several studies have been conducted describing EC general requirements, challenges, and issues. However, considering the complexity involved in the EC paradigm, non-functional requirements (NFRs) are equally important as functional requirements, to be thoroughly investigated. This paper discusses NFRs, namely, performance, reliability, scalability, and security that can assist in maturing the EC paradigm. To accomplish the objective, available case studies and the state-of-the-art related to non-functional requirements, real-world issues, and challenges concerning EC are reviewed. Ultimately, the paper anatomizes the aforementioned NFRs leveraging the six-part scenario form of sourcestimulus-artifact-environment-response-response measure to assert Quality of Service (QoS) in EC.
Keywords: Edge Computing | Non functional requirements (quality attributes) | Quality of service
The big picture on the internet of things and the smart city: a review of what we know and what we need to know
تصویر بزرگ در اینترنت اشیا و شهر هوشمند: مروری بر آنچه میدانیم و آنچه باید بدانیم-2022
This study examines how the application of the IoT in smart cities is discussed in the current academic literature. Based on bibliometric techniques, 1,802 articles were retrieved from the Scopus database and analyzed to identify the temporal nature of IoT research, the most relevant journals, authors, countries, keywords, and studies. The software tool VOSviewer was used to build the keyword co-occurrence network and to cluster the pertinent literature. Results show the significant growth of IoT research in recent years. The most productive authors, journals, and countries were also identified. The main findings from the keyword co-occurrence clustering and an in-depth qualitative analysis indicate that the IoT is used alongside other technologies including cloud computing, big data analytics, blockchain, artificial intelligence, and wireless telecommunication networks. The major applications of the IoT for smart cities include smart buildings, transportation, healthcare, smart parking, and smart grids. This review is one of the first attempts to map global IoT research in a smart city context and uses a comprehensive set of articles and bibliometric techniques to provide scholars and practitioners with an overview of what has been studied so far and to identify research gaps at the intersection of the IoT and the smart city.
keywords: اینترنت اشیا | شهر هوشمند | مرور | کتاب سنجی | Internet of things | Smart city | Review | Bibliometrics
A flexible Compilation-as-a-Service and Remote-Programming-as-a-Service platform for IoT devices
یک پلت فرم انعطاف پذیر مجموعه به عنوان سرویس و برنامه نویسی راه دور به عنوان سرویس برای دستگاه های اینترنت اشیا-2022
The Internet-of-Things (IoT) presents itself as an emerging technology, which is able to interconnect a massive number of heterogeneous smart objects. Several complex data-driven applications, such as smart cities applications, home automation, health monitoring, etc., have been realized through the existence of these ubiquitous networks of smart objects. The ability to remotely update the devices forming an IoT network is of paramount importance, as it enables adding new functionality in their firmware, either for resolving software bugs and security vulnerabilities or for application re-purposing, without the need to physically access them. In this work, we present a flexible Compilation-as-a-Service and Remote-Programming-as-a-Service platform that jointly offers cloud-based compilation and Firmware-Over-The-Air (FOTA) update functionalities for deployed IoT devices, in a reliable and secure manner. Our system is capable of easily supporting various embedded operating systems and heterogeneous hardware platforms. We describe the system architecture and elaborate on the implementation details of all system components. In addition, we perform an extensive performance evaluation of a Proof-of-Concept (PoC) deployment of our system and discuss results in terms of system response, scalability and resource utilization.
keywords: Internet-of-Things | Cloud computing | Platform-as-a-Service | Cloud compilation | Over-the-air programming
Advanced digital signatures for preserving privacy and trust management in hierarchical heterogeneous IoT: Taxonomy, capabilities, and objectives
امضای دیجیتالی پیشرفته برای حفظ حریم خصوصی و مدیریت اعتماد در اینترنت اشیا ناهمگون سلسله مراتبی: طبقه بندی، قابلیت ها و اهداف-2022
Internet of Things (IoT) systems in different areas, such as manufacturing, transportation, and healthcare, are the convergence of several technologies. There are many concerns about security and privacy drawbacks in IoT systems. Apart from confidentiality supported by encryption primitives, authenticity and non-repudiation are of utmost importance. IoT entities generally use conventional digital signature schemes to achieve imperative goals. However, there are some state-of-the-art digital signatures with more functionalities, IoT-friendly properties, and privacy-preserving features.
This survey paper aims to accelerate the adoption of advanced digital signatures. We bridge the gap between the advanced theoretical digital signatures recently designed in cryptographic oriented papers and the applied IoT systems. It aids researchers in achieving more security, privacy as well as some unique functionality aspects. First, we illustrate the benefits of the hierarchical and heterogeneous IoT architecture supporting the end-edge-fog-cloud continuum accompanying blockchain technology. Second, our survey delves into five state-of-the-art digital signatures, including randomizable, keyless, double-authentication-prevention, sanitizable, and redactable schemes, that are aligned with entities in IoT systems. We provide an outline, taxonomy, comparison table, and diverse IoT-based use cases for each of them. Then, the integration of primitives and the relationship diagrams give guidelines to help select the appropriate advanced digital signatures and highlights how researchers can use them with different IoT entities for preserving privacy and management of trust.
keywords: امضای دیجیتالی | حفظ حریم خصوصی اینترنت اشیا | بلاک چین | محاسبات ابری | Digital signature | IoT Privacy-preserving | Blockchain | Cloud computing
AI for next generation computing: Emerging trends and future directions
هوش مصنوعی برای محاسبات نسل بعدی: روندهای نوظهور و مسیرهای آینده-2022
Autonomic computing investigates how systems can achieve (user) specified ‘‘control’’ outcomes on their own, without the intervention of a human operator. Autonomic computing fundamentals have been substantially influenced by those of control theory for closed and open-loop systems. In practice, complex systems may exhibit a number of concurrent and inter-dependent control loops. Despite research into autonomic models for managing computer resources, ranging from individual resources (e.g., web servers) to a resource ensemble (e.g., multiple resources within a data centre), research into integrating Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) to improve resource autonomy and performance at scale continues to be a fundamental challenge. The integration of AI/ML to achieve such autonomic and self-management of systems can be achieved at different levels of granularity, from full to human-in-the-loop automation. In this article, leading academics, researchers, practitioners, engineers, and scientists in the fields of cloud computing, AI/ML, and quantum computing join to discuss current research and potential future directions for these fields. Further, we discuss challenges and opportunities for leveraging AI and ML in next generation computing for emerging computing paradigms, including cloud, fog, edge, serverless and quantum computing environments.
Keywords: Next generation computing | Artificial intelligence | Cloud computing | Fog computing | Edge computing | Serverless computing | Quantum computing | Machine learning
HealthCloud: A system for monitoring health status of heart patients using machine learning and cloud computing
HealthCloud: سیستمی برای نظارت بر وضعیت سلامت بیماران قلبی با استفاده از یادگیری ماشین و محاسبات ابری-2022
In the context of the global health crisis of 2020, the tendency of many people to self-diagnose at home virtually, prior to any physical interaction with medical professionals, has been increased. Existing self-diagnosis systems include those accessible via the Internet, which involve entering one’s symptoms. Several other methods do exist, for example, people read medical blogs or notes, which are often wrongly interpreted by them and they arrive at a completely different assumption regarding the cause of their symptoms. In this paper, a system called HealthCloud is proposed, for monitoring health status of heart patients using machine learning and cloud computing. This study aims to offer the ‘best of both worlds’, by combining the information required for the person to understand the disease in sufficient detail, with an accurate prediction as to whether they may have (in this case) heart disease or not. The presence of heart disease is predicted using machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest Neighbours, Neural Networks, Logistic Regression and Gradient Boosting Trees. This paper evaluates these machine learning algorithms to obtain the most accurate model, in compliance with Quality of Service (QoS) parameters. The performance of these machine learning models is measured and compared using the metrics such as Accuracy, Sensitivity (Recall), Specificity, AUC scores, Execution Time, Latency, and Memory Usage. For better establishment of the results, these machine learning algorithms have been cross validated with 5-fold cross validation technique. With an accuracy rate of 85.96%, it has been found that Logistic Regression is the most responsive and accurate model amongst those models assessed. The Precision, Recall, Cross Validation mean and AUC Score for this model were 95.83%, 76.67%, 81.68% and 96% respectively. The algorithm and the mobile application were tested on Google Cloud Firebase with existing user inputs from the dataset, as well as with unseen new data. The use of this system can assist patients, both in reaching self-diagnosis decisions and in monitoring their health.
keywords: Machine learning | Smart healthcare | Heart disease prediction | Cloud computing
Supply- and cyber-related disruptions in cloud supply chain firms: Determining the best recovery speeds
اختلالات مربوط به تأمین و سایبر در شرکت های زنجیره تامین ابر: تعیین بهترین سرعت بازیابی-2021
This study investigated the speeds (i.e., radical, incremental, relaxed benchmarking, rigorous benchmarking, matching, and market-driven) of firms’ recovery from supply- and cyber-related disruptions in cloud supply chains (SCs). Supply-related disruptions downgrade the firm’s operational capabilities (e.g., production capacity and labor supply), and cyber-related disruptions reduce its intangible capabilities (e.g., reputation, brand image, and public trust). This study introduced a cellular automata (CA) simulation model to determine the best recovery speeds following the loss of operational and intangible capabilities. Furthermore, to investigate the impact of cloud adoption on an SC firm’s best speeds of recovery from supply-related disruptions, we compared firms that had adopted the cloud with those using the on-site data centers.
Keywords: Supply chain | Cloud computing | Disruption | Recovery | Cellular automata simulation
A fuzzy based hybrid decision framework to circularity in dairy supply chains through big data solutions
چارچوب تصمیم ترکیبی مبتنی بر فازی برای مدور بودن در زنجیره های تامین لبنیات از طریق راه حل های داده های بزرگ-2021
This study determines the potential barriers to achieving circularity in dairy supply chains; it proposes a framework which covers big data driven solutions to deal with the suggested barriers. The main contribution of the study is to propose a framework by making ideal matching and ranking of big data solutions to barriers to circularity in dairy supply chains. This framework further offers a specific roadmap as a practical contribution while investigating companies with restricted resources. In this study the main barriers are classified as ‘eco- nomic’, ‘environmental’, ‘social and legal’, ‘technological’, ‘supply chain management’ and ‘strategic’ with twenty-seven sub-barriers. Various big data solutions such as machine learning, optimization, data mining, cloud computing, artificial neural network, statistical techniques and social network analysis have been suggested. Big data solutions are matched with circularity focused barriers to show which solutions succeed in overcoming barriers. A hybrid decision framework based on the fuzzy ANP and the fuzzy VIKOR is developed to find the weights of the barriers and to rank the big data driven solutions. The results indicate that among the main barriers, ‘economic’ was of the highest importance, followed by ‘technological’, ‘environmental’, ‘strategic’, ‘supply chain management’ then ‘social and legal barrier’ in dairy supply chains. In order to overcome circularity focused barriers, ‘optimization’ is determined to be the most important big data solution. The other solutions to overcoming proposed challenges are ‘data mining’, ‘machine learning’, ‘statistical techniques’ and ‘artificial neural network’ respectively. The suggested big data solutions will be useful for policy makers and managers to deal with potential barriers in implementing circularity in the context of dairy supply chains.
Keywords: Dairy supply chain | Barriers | Circular economy | Big data solution | Fuzzy ANP - VIKOR | Group decision making system