Wood supply chain risks and risk mitigation strategies: A systematic review focusing on the Northern hemisphere
خطرات زنجیره تامین چوب و استراتژی های کاهش خطر: یک مرور سیستماتیک با تمرکز بر نیمکره شمالی-2021
This paper presents a systematic literature review on both the risks affecting wood supply security and risk mitigation strategies by quantitative and qualitative data analysis. It describes wood-specific supply chain risks, thereupon resulting impacts and counteracting strategies to ensure supply. Risks, impacts, and strategies are documented as basis for a comparative analysis, discussion of results, challenges and research gaps. Finally, the suitability and the limitations of the chosen methodology and the achieved results are discussed. Scanning wood supply chain risks and supply strategies, most of the reviewed papers focus on wood supply for bioenergy generation and only a few studies investigate wood supply chain risk issues for the sawing, wood panel, pulp and paper industries, or biorefineries.This review differs significantly from other reviews in this field as it considers the entire wood value chain including recent studies on new chemical wood-based products and thus provides a more complete picture of the wood-based bioeconomy. Consequently, it contributes to the literature by providing an overarching investigation of the risks affecting wood supply security and possible side effects of a growing wood-based bioeconomy. It was found that comprehensive value chain analyses considering established wood products, large-volume bioenergy products, as well as established and new chemical wood-based products in the context of wood supply security are missing. Studies that map the entire wood value chain with its multilevel interdependences and integrating cascading use of wood are lacking.
Keywords: Wood supply | Wood supply chain risk | Supply risk mitigation | Wood supply strategy | Wood-based bioeconomy
Supply chain financial service management system based on block chain IoT data sharing and edge computing
سیستم مدیریت خدمات مالی زنجیره تامین مبتنی بر اشتراک داده های اینترنت اشیا زنجیره بلاکچین و محاسبات لبه ای-2021
The implementation of the ‘‘Internet +” policy advocated by the state has also led to rapid development of Internet finance. In order to promote changes in business development models, as a pioneering work for banks serving the real economy, supply chains are being developed to address small and medium-sized enterprises. The financing of enterprises, the transformation and development needs of banks themselves, and the promotion of logistics technology. Edge computing refers to an open platform that integrates network, data processing, storage and application core functions, and can provide the closest end-of-page service near the object data source to meet real-time, application intelligence, security and privacy Sexual needs. The core of supply chain financing is to establish an optimized plan that can effectively control supply chain financing. By integrating the financing literature of the supply chain, the settlement cost in the supply chain can be solved. Based on theoretical research, this article analyzes supply chain financing and block chain technology. Combined with the current specific situation of block chain in supply chain financing, the management system, cash flow of the supply chain, and risk control system are analyzed. All parties to the supply chain financing optimize the supply chain financing risk control system while reducing business costs and improving corporate efficiency, which greatly reduces the risks of all parties in the supply chain financing. The block chain Iota environment based on shared data and advanced data processing has very powerful theoretical and practical significance for promoting the development of commercial banks and enterprises.
KEYWORDS: Block chain | Internet of things | Edge computing | Supply chain finance | Commercial bank
Evolving challenges and strategies for fungal control in the food supply chain
چالش ها و استراتژی های در حال کنترل برای کنترل قارچ در زنجیره تامین مواد غذایی-2021
Fungi that spoil foods or infect crops can have major socioeconomic impacts, posing threats to food security. The strategies needed to manage these fungi are evolving, given the growing incidence of fungicide resistance, tightening regulations of chemicals use and market trends imposing new food-preservation challenges. For example, alternative methods for crop protection such as RNA-based fungicides, biocontrol, or stimulation of natural plant defences may lessen concerns like environmental toxicity of chemical fungicides. There is renewed focus on natural product preservatives and fungicides, which can bypass regulations for ‘clean label’ food products. These require investment to find effective, safe activities within complex mixtures such as plant extracts. Alternatively, physical measures may be one key for fungal control, such as polymer materials which passively resist attachment and colonization by fungi. Reducing or replacing traditional chlorine treatments (e.g. of post-harvest produce) is desirable to limit formation of disinfection by-products. In addition, the current growth in lower sugar food products can alter metabolic routing of carbon utilization in spoilage yeasts, with implications for efficacy of food preservatives acting via metabolism. The use of preservative or fungicide combinations, while involving more than one chemical, can reduce total chemicals usage where these act synergistically. Such approaches might also help target different subpopulations within heteroresistant fungal populations. These approaches are discussed in the context of cur- rent challenges for food preservation, focussing on pre-harvest fungal control, fresh pro- duce and stored food preservation. Several strategies show growing potential for mitigating or reversing the risks posed by fungi in the food supply chain.ª 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of British Mycological Society. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). * Corresponding author. E-mail address: Simon.Avery@nottingham.ac.uk (S. V. Avery).1 Authors made equal contributions. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbr.2021.01.0031749-4613/ª 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of British Mycological Society. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: Agrichemicals | Antimicrobial resistance | Food spoilage | Phytopathogens | Spoilage fungi
Uncovering research streams on agri-food supply chain management: A bibliometric study
کشف جریانهای تحقیق در مورد مدیریت زنجیره تأمین مواد غذایی کشاورزی: یک مطالعه کتابشناختی-2021
This study carried out a bibliometric analysis to critically review the evolution of the agri-food supply chain (AFSC) research field over the period of 2008–2019. A set of 1236 articles was analyzed from the Web of Science database. Besides using different analytical scientometric tools (topic mapping, co-citation, co-authorship and overlay visualization networks), this study identified frequently-used keywords, new and hot research topics and frequently-studied supply chain management (SCM) practices. Frequently used keywords are food supply chain, food waste, sustainability, food safety, SCM, food industry, and food security. New research themes include contract, blockchain, internet of things, resilience, and short food supply chain, a topic that demands further research especially due to the international COVID-19 pandemic and the need of farmers to be closer to the consumers. Hot research topics, that is, subjects that have been studied in highly cited papers were also identified include life cycle assessment, environmental impact, packaging, water use, food waste prevention, food waste generation, blockchain and carbon footprint. Among SCM practices, this study observed that risk and sustainable SCM are frequently used keywords. Procurement and reverse logistics were observed in fewer studies. SCM, food waste, food quality, GHG emissions and risk management are sustainable SCM practices frequently observed.
Keywords: Agri-food supply chain | Bibliometric analysis | Co-authorship | Co-citation analysis | Scientometrics | Supply chain management practices
Circular economy for phosphorus supply chain and its impact on social sustainable development goals
اقتصاد مدور برای زنجیره تأمین فسفر و تأثیر آن بر اهداف توسعه پایدار اجتماعی-2021
To be able to grow crops, we have interfered with Earths reserves of one of top three essential elements, phosphorus (P), as to which we face a problem related to its high consumption compared to available resources. This forces us to follow the alternative of closing the phosphorus loop from a circular economy perspective. However, there is a lack of research on regional and global social sustainability in this area, as emphasized in the United Nations Agenda 2030 goals for sustainable development. In this paper, we address social challenges involved in global phosphorus supply chain, such as eradicating poverty, child labor and malnutrition; promoting gender equality; providing decent work and economic growth; maintaining sustainable water use; and achieving food security. Our research is driven by the question of whether the circular economy aims to direct phosphorus management towards tackling social issues associated with its supply chain. We use system dynamics modelling by combining the concept of material flow analysis and social life cycle assessment. Detailed analysis at regional and global levels indicates a paradoxical social impact of phosphorus circular model. This reflects the multiple stakeholders involved, and the regional interactions with phosphorus circular economy transitions. Improvements can be demonstrated in reducing poverty and providing safer work environment in many regions, e.g., Western Asia (93%), New Zealand, Central Asia, and Europe (44–61%), while achieving employment targets is limited in Northern and Eastern Europe. Circular model fails to promote gender equality, it also exacerbates exploitative child work problem for the Caribbean and most Africa. It provides sufficient nutrition to North America, Australia/New Zealand, and Northern Europe. It achieves water use targets in several regions with 53% savings worldwide. Finally, circular model contributes to P efficiency (average balance of 1.21 kgP/ha) and strengthens P security within most regions with an average of 64%.
Keywords: Critical materials | Phosphorus | Social sustainability | Circular economy | Dynamic modelling
A big data based architecture for collaborative networks: Supply chains mixed-network
یک معماری مبتنی بر داده های بزرگ برای شبکه های مشارکتی: شبکه های مخلوط شبکه های تأمین-2021
Nowadays, the world knows a high-speed development and evolution of technologies, vulnerable economic environments, market changes, and personalised consumer trends. The issue and challenge related to enterprises networks design are more and more critical. These networks are often designed for short terms since their strategies must be competitive and better adapted to the environment, social and economical changes. As a solution, to design a flexible and robust network, it is necessary to deal with the trade-off between conflicting qualitative and quantitative criteria such as cost, quality, delivery time, and competition, etc. To this end, using Big Data (BD) as emerging technology will enhance the real performances of these kinds of networks. Moreover, even if the literature is rich with BD models and frameworks developed for a single supply chain network (SCN), there is a real need to scale and extend these BD models to networked supply chains (NSCs). To do so, this paper proposes a BD architecture to drive a mixed-network of SCs that collaborate in serial and parallel fashions. The collaboration is set up by sharing their resources, capabilities, competencies, and information to imitate a unique organisation. The objective is to increase internal value to their shareholders (where value is seen as wealth) and deliver better external value to the end-customer (where value represents customer satisfaction). Within a mixed-network of SCs, both values are formally calculated considering both serial and parallel networks configurations. Besides, some performance factors of the proposed BD architecture such as security, flexibility, robustness and resilience are discussed.
Keywords: Big data architecture | Collaborative networks | Enterprises network | Supply chain network | Flexibility | Robustness
Factors influencing blockchain adoption in supply chain management practices: A study based on the oil industry
عوامل موثر بر پذیرش بلاکچین در راهکارهای مدیریت زنجیره تامین: مطالعه ای مبتنی بر صنعت نفت-2021
Planning to adopt the Blockchain is very active in many industries, especially in supply chains. Researchers believe that the Radio-frequency identification (RFIDs), yesterday’s Blockchain, is now obsolete. The strongest reason that the Blockchain is the tool of this era is its unique features; real-time information sharing, cyber-security, transparency, reliability, traceability, and visibility, all of which boost the supply-chain performance. Despite the extensive literature on Blockchain, in recent years, no clear framework has defined whether a supply chain should implement Blockchain or not. This study attempts to fill this gap by proposing a framework for complex supply chain networks. In doing so, first, we identified the supply-chain practices of the oil industry in Pakistan, then we empirically analyzed the impact of these practices on operational performance. The results show that the supply chain management (SCM) practices positively impact operational performance. On the other hand, with the help of literature, we identified different Blockchain features and their influence on different supply chain practices. This study guides managers and decision-makers to evaluate their current supply-chain practices and understand the relationship between supply-chain practices and Blockchain features, and how different Blockchain features can help improving supply-chain practices and ultimately improving operational performance.
Keywords: Blockchain | Blockchain features | Supply chain management | Supply chain management practices | Operational performance, oil industry | supply Chain
Beware suppliers bearing gifts!: Analysing coverage of supply chain cyber security in critical national infrastructure sectorial and cross-sectorial frameworks
مراقب تأمین کنندگان هدیه باشید!: تجزیه و تحلیل پوشش امنیت سایبری زنجیره تامین در زیرساخت های مهم ملی بخش های بخشی و بین بخشی-2021
Threat actors are increasingly targeting extended supply chains and abusing client-supplier trust to conduct third-party compromise. Governments are concerned about targeted attacks against critical national infrastructures, where compromise can have significant adverse national consequences. In this paper we identify and review advice and guidance offered by authorities in the UK, US, and the EU regarding Cyber Supply Chain Risk Management (C-SCRM). We then conduct a review of sector specific guidance in the three regions for the chemical, energy, and water sectors. We assessed frameworks that each region’s sector offered organisations for C-SCRM suitability. Our results found a range of interpretations for “Supply Chain” that resulted in a diversity in the quantity and quality of advice offered by regional authorities, sectors, and their frameworks. This is exacerbated by the lack of a common taxonomy to support supply chain procurement and risk management that has led to limited coverage in most C-SCRM programs. Our results highlight the need for a taxonomy regarding C-SCRM and systematic guidance (both general and sector specific) to enable controls to be deployed to mitigate against supply chain risk. We provide an outline taxonomy based on our data analysis to promote further discussion and research.
Keywords: Cyber security | Supply chain | Risk management | Critical national infrastructure | Common taxonomy
On malicious implants in PCBs throughout the supply chain
در مورد ایمپلنت های مخرب در مدار چاپی در سراسر زنجیره تامین-2021
The PCB supply chain has become globally distributed such that PCBs are vulnerable to hardware Trojan attacks. Moreover, attacks on PCBs are possible even after a system is deployed. Various countermeasures have been proposed and efforts to develop board-level Trojan benchmarks are underway, but IC Trojan taxonomies do not capture important characteristics of PCB implants. This work surveys existing PCB countermeasures and examples of board-level Trojans to inform a new taxonomy suited for PCB Trojans. Our taxonomy reflects practically significant characteristics of board-level Trojans to guide development of board-level countermeasures and fair, comprehensive benchmark suites.
Keywords: Hardware Trojan | Hardware implant | Printed circuit board Trojan | Hardware security | Taxonomy
BIOFUSE: A framework for multi-biometric fusion on biocryptosystem level
BIOFUSE: چارچوبی برای همجوشی چند بیومتریک در سطح بیو کریپتوسیستم-2021
Biometric cryptosystems or biocryptoystems are gaining prominence for cryptographic key generation, encryption and biometric template protection. However, the most popular state-of-the-art biocryptosystems- fuzzy commitment and fuzzy vault are prone to multiple security attacks. Recently proposed multi-biometric cryptosystems improve security and enhance recognition performance. They perform the fusion of multi-biometric characteristics with either a single biocryptosystem or independently accessed, multiple biocryptosystems. An attack on any of the involved biocryptosystems can weaken the security of the whole system. In our paper, we propose a multi-biometric fusion framework- BIOFUSE, that combines fuzzy commitment and fuzzy vault using the format-preserving encryption scheme. BIOFUSE makes it improbable for an attacker to get unauthorized access to the system without impersonation of all the biometric inputs of the genuine user at the same instant. We present 4 most basic ways of constructing BIOFUSE and found only 1 named S- BIOFUSE (S3) as a secure design. We compare the recognition performance of the proposed scheme with existing multi-biometric cryptosystems on various databases. The results show 0:98 true match rate at 0:01 false match rate on a virtual IITD-DB1 database that indicates that our proposed work achieves significantly good recognition performance while providing high security.© 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Biometric cryptosystem | Biometric template protection | Multi-biometric fusion | Fuzzy commitment | Fuzzy vault | Format-preserving encryption