Analysing the inhibitors of complexity for achieving sustainability and improving sustainable performance of petroleum supply chain
تجزیه و تحلیل مهارکننده های پیچیدگی برای دستیابی به پایداری و بهبود عملکرد پایدار زنجیره تأمین نفت-2021
In the era of business sustainability, the modern supply chain is becoming complex due to several inhibitors such as uncertainty in the market, technological innovation, environmental protocols, cross-border trade regulations, and many stakeholders’ involvement. In the existing literature, minimal discussion to study the inhibit supply chain complexity (SCC) inhibitors for achieving sustainability. Therefore, the study analyses the inhibitors to SCC and supply chain sustainability (SCS) jointly. The combined examination of the underlying relationship for improving the Petroleum Supply Chain’s sustainable performance (PSC) is arguably one of the complex sectors with a significant impact on the environment and sustainability. The inhibitors to SCC and SCS are identified through extensive literature review and experts’ opinions. Through a structured questionnaire, data were collected from PSC experts. An integrated approach of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and interpretive structural modelling (ISM) is proposed to prioritize and examine the underlying relationship between inhibitors. This study explores the driving and dependence power of the inhibitors. The results indicate that most of the SCS inhibitors, such as institutional pressures (laws and regulations), strategic lack of strategic supplier alliance, market threat, act as drivers of SCC inhibitors, such as technological complexity, horizontal complexity, and complexity of customers. The study’s findings would help the supply chain managers and the petroleum sector policymakers to make better decision to overcome the challenges for achieving sustainability in PSC.
Keywords: Petroleum supply chain | Environment and sustainability | Complexity | Business strategy | Interpretive structural modelling | Performance
Green supply chain management and clean technology innovation: An empirical analysis of multinational enterprises in China
مدیریت زنجیره تامین سبز و نوآوری در فناوری پاک: تجزیه و تحلیل تجربی شرکت های چند ملیتی در چین-2021
This study identifies the impact of green supply chain management (GSCM) on clean technology innovation (CTI) by enterprises in China as well as compares the effects of forward and backward GSCM and the differences by industry and home country. The effect of CTI on GSCM is tested by 501 samples of mostly multinational enterprises in China from 2014 to 2016. The results indicate that CTI benefits from GSCM, which remains robust to a series of sensitivity test. And different management directions show great differences, where the backward GSCM has a stronger promotion effect on CTI than the forward GSCM. Moreover, light polluting industries and capital-intensive industries have stronger incentives to adopt GSCM than heavy-polluting industries and labour intensive industries. And domestic companies perform better than foreign companies.
Keywords: Green supply chain | Clean technology innovation | Supply chain management direction | Multinational enterprises
Managing micro and small enterprise supply chains: A multi-level approach to sustainability, resilience and regional development
مدیریت زنجیره تأمین شرکت های خرد و کوچک: رویکردی چند سطح برای پایداری ، انعطاف پذیری و توسعه منطقه ای-2021
Amidst the high number of frameworks associated with supply chain sustainability (SCS), proper consideration to the role and importance of micro and small enterprises (MSEs) has been missing in the literature. To address this research gap, this paper investigates the driving factors that support MSE supply chains to achieve sustainability. We employ institutional and complexity theories to broaden our understanding of the dynamics behind neglected supply chain structures, especially the ones predominantly formed by MSEs. An in-depth nested case study is carried out in a MSE supply chain in an emerging economy, where 33 supply chain players were involved in the data collection. Using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches to analyze the data, we find that to truly implement SCS, research and practice should consider not only the strategic, structural and process levels, but also the contextual level, which is critical dimension to SCS dynamics. Results show that MSE supply chains contribute significantly to regional socio-economic development due to their local roots and regional history. Also, findings demonstrate that MSE supply chains have enhanced resilience to crises (e.g., economic, political and other disruptions) because they are often focused on long-standing economic activities within the regional ecosystems. This paper contributes to theory by arguing that SCS is a much more complex phenomenon in practice than the current theory implies. Therefore, incorporating the diversity from reality and the peculiarities of MSE supply chains into the SCS debate helps the literature to get closer to the SCS practice.
Keywords: Supply chain sustainability | Micro and small enterprise supply chains | Supply chain resilience | Regional development | Emerging economy
The choice of cooperation mode in the bioenergy supply chain with random biomass feedstock yield
انتخاب حالت همکاری در زنجیره تأمین انرژی زیستی با عملکرد خوراک زیست توده تصادفی-2021
A successful cooperation mode between bioenergy producers and farmers can effectively promote the supply of biomass feedstock, which plays an important role in the bioenergy industry. In this study, we examine two prevailing cooperation modes in bioenergy supply chain, namely contract farming (CF) and land as shares (LS). This study assesses how each cooperation mode influences the planting acreage, the feedstock quality and the profits of supply chain participants. Under CF, the farmer and the bioenergy producer sign a contract in which the bioenergy producer purchases all feedstock produced by the farmer. Under LS, the farmer converts their land use rights into company shares, so that the bioenergy producer will share part of sales revenue with the farmer. First, we find that the optimal planting scale of biomass feedstock under LS is larger than that under CF when the bioenergy market size is sufficiently large. If the market size is relatively small, the supply quantity of biomass feedstock under LS depends on the marginal value of feedstock quality. Second, when the bioenergy market is sufficiently large, the farmer and the bioenergy producer under LS can achieve a win-win situation, which improves the reliability of the bioenergy supply chain. Third, we extend our model to the case where the government implements subsidies for biomass feedstock. We find that when the subsidy is high enough, the biomass feedstock quantity under LS will be larger. In addition, government subsidy does not necessarily improve the profit of all supply chain participants and excessive government subsidy may adversely affect the reliability of the bioenergy supply chain.
Keywords: Bioenergy supply chain | Contract farming | Land as shares | Government subsidy
Integrating corporate website information into qualitative assessment for benchmarking green supply chain management practices for the chemical industry
ادغام اطلاعات وب سایت شرکت ها در ارزیابی کیفی برای محک زدن شیوه های مدیریت زنجیره تامین سبز برای صنایع شیمیایی-2021
The China’s chemical industry has been endeavoring to promote sustainable development through practicing green supply chain management (GSCM). This paper proposes a multi-criteria decision framework with twenty practices to guide companies in the industry to enact GSCM effectively. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) has been used to cluster the proposed practices. We found five aspects, including economic initiatives, environmental management, eco-design, resource recycling, and stakeholder and employee, constitute the underlying structure of GSCM. A mixed decision tool combining the entropy weight method (EWM) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been developed and applied to identify key factors. Official website information has been collected and used to analyse the website contents of five benchmarking companies in the China’s chemical industry. The results reveal that the aspects of environmental management, eco-design and resource recycling are the most important GSCM themes. Moreover, the top five practices are top management support, performing life cycle assessment, managing environmental risks, advancing recycling technologies and integrating reverse logistics. Conceptual and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Environmental management | Eco-design | Resource recycling | Entropy weight | Analytic hierarchy process | Decision analysis
The adoption of circular economy practices in supply chains – An assessment of European Multi-National Enterprises
The adoption of circular economy practices in supply chains – An assessment of European Multi-National Enterprises-2021
The European Commission Circular Economy Action Plan aims at fostering a society based on sustainable pro- duction and consumption. Within this context, industrial organisations are called to implement a wide set of practices to drive this transition: manufacturing easy-to-repair and sustainable products, adopting solutions aimed at extending product lifetime, and promoting remanufacturing and materials’ recycling. A major contribution is expected from Multi-National Enterprises (MNEs), as these organizations dominate the European economy and coordinate resource-intensive global supply networks. As such, this study assesses the Circular Economy-inspired initiatives promoted by the largest European MNEs. The content of sustainability reports is scrutinised, through a template analysis technique, in order to create a database of Circular Economy practices. Key findings include the degree of implementation, the level of involvement of supply chain partners, and the drivers behind the implementation of such practices. Furthermore, a conceptual framework is proposed, in order to describe the adoption of Circular Economy practices as a supply chain process. A theoretical discussion explores the role of institutional pressures and supply chain integration to shape the transition towards the adoption of Circular Economy practices in global supply chains.
Keywords: Circular economy | Fortune 500 | Sustainability | MNEs | Supply chain integration | Institutional theory
A multi-objective fuzzy robust stochastic model for designing a sustainable-resilient-responsive supply chain network
یک مدل تصادفی محکم فازی چند هدفه برای طراحی یک شبکه زنجیره تأمین پایدار ، قابل انعطاف و پاسخگو-2021
This study proposes a multi-objective mixed-integer programming model to configure a sustainable supply chain network while considering resilience and responsiveness measures. The model aims at minimizing the total costs and environmental damages while maximizing the social impacts, as well as the responsiveness and resilience levels of the supply chain network. An improved version of the fuzzy robust stochastic optimization approach is proposed to tackle the uncertain data arising in the dynamic business environment. Furthermore, a new version of meta-goal programming named the multi-choice meta-goal programming associated with a utility function is developed to solve the resulting multi-objective model. A case study in the water heater industry is investigated to illustrate the application of the proposed model and its solution approach. The numerical results validate the proposed model and the developed solution method. Finally, interactions between the sustainability, responsiveness, and resilience dimensions are investigated and several sensitivity analyses are performed on critical parameters by which useful managerial insights are provided.
Keywords: Supply chain network design | Sustainability | Resilience | Responsiveness | Fuzzy robust stochastic optimization | Multi-choice meta-goal programming
Inventory model for sustainable operations of a closed-loop supply chain: Role of a third-party refurbisher
مدل موجودی برای عملیات پایدار یک زنجیره تأمین حلقه بسته: نقش یک مرمت کننده شخص ثالث-2021
Journal Pre-proof This paper investigates the joint decision on inventory and refurbishing strategies in a closed-loop supply chain, consisting of a manufacturer responsible for the production and first-market sales and a third-party refurbisher responsible for the refurbishment and second market. Based on a game-theoretic model, we investigate the effects of supply chain structures on the production operations, sales price of a refurbished product, profits and environmental performance. Through numerical analyses, we reveal that the integrated system yields higher first-market sales and a larger production lot size, while the decentralized one shows higher second-market sales and a larger refurbishing lot. Interestingly, the integrated system sets the higher price for the refurbished item due to channel conflict issues. Efforts to increase the second-market sales can harm the over- all supply chain profit by leading to the decrease in the higher-margin first-market sales. We also show that the difference in pricing decisions and inventory holding cost components allows a better operational performance of the third-party refurbishers process in the decentralized system. Then, it leads to the better environmental performance in the decentralized system, enhancing the refurbishing rate and sales of refurbished items while reducing scrap costs. By investigating the overall performance of integrated and decentralized supply chains, we offer important implications to practicing supply chain managers by revealing how the third-party refurbisher can help the sustainable operations of a closed-loop supply chain. We also contribute to the body of knowledge by incorporating pricing and lot sizing issues into the context of closed-loop supply chain management.
Keywords: inventory | closed-loop supply chain | sales return | refurbishment
Modern slavery statements: From regulation to substantive supply chain reporting
اظهارات برده داری مدرن: از مقررات گرفته تا گزارش زنجیره تأمین اساسی-2021
Recent years have seen a renewed focus on labor standards in the supply chain, prompted by legislation that requires firms to provide an account of their efforts to combat modern slavery. However, as a common problem of non-financial disclosure regulation, companies can decide the extent and content of their reporting, which could potentially result in merely symbolic disclosures with little substance. We examine the disclosure of substantive actions in modern slavery statements, defined as those disclosures of corporate actions that can positively affect working conditions in supply chains. We examine the corporate disclosure of these actions over time in order to evaluate whether legally mandated disclosure requirements could lead to progress in combatting modern slavery. For this purpose, we collected modern slavery statements from companies that had issued such statements for at least two different years after the
Keywords: Modern slavery statements | Social sustainability | Substantive disclosures | CSR Disclosures | Legitimacy theory | Content analysis
Who will take on green product development in supply chains? Manufacturer or retailer
چه کسی توسعه محصول سبز را در زنجیره های تامین به عهده خواهد گرفت؟ تولید کننده یا خرده فروش-2021
: This paper investigates the optimal decisions, profits and social welfare in a green supply chain (GSC) when the manufacturer or retailer conducts green product development. Two Stackelberg game models are constructed here: the manufacturer-led green product development model (MD model) and retailer-led green product development model (RD model), and it is assumed that the green product developer is risk-averse. Then the optimal decisions and members’ profits under two models are obtained. Through comparing them, the results show that the product greenness and leader’s profit are always higher in MD model, but in which model the retail price, wholesale price and follower’s profit are higher/lower is related to the cost coefficient of green product development, the leaders’ risk aversion, and demand uncertainty. Moreover, the risk aversion and demand uncertainty have a negative impact on most decisions and profits, but their impact on followers’ profits under two models and the wholesale price of RD model are still affected by the cost coefficient of green product development. Finally, numerical experiments are used to compare the total profits and social welfare under two models. The results indicate that in most cases, the GSC’s total profit under RD model is higher, but the social welfare under MD model is higher.
Keywords: Green product development | Green supply chain management | Stackelberg game | Risk aversion