Shareholding strategies for selling green products on online platforms in a two-echelon supply chain
استراتژی های سهامداری برای فروش محصولات سبز در سیستم عامل های آنلاین در یک زنجیره تأمین دو طبقه-2021
Observing the practical vertical shareholding phenomena in platform retailing, this paper con- siders two shareholding rates (forward and backward) and proposes three shareholding strategies (forward, backward and cross-shareholding) in a supplier-lead green supply chain to investigate the operation mechanism behind it. Shareholding’s impacts on green investment, prices and profits are provided and the players’ strategy preferences are discussed. We interestingly find that cross-shareholding can be joint optimal when the two shareholding rates are both sufficiently low and thereby Pareto region goes with it. Meanwhile, both the players’ performances can be further improved through certain coordinated ways.
Keywords: Green supply chain | Game theory | Platform retailing | Shareholding strategy | Pareto region
Sourcing under competition: The implications of supplier capital constraint and supply chain co-opetition
تأمین منابع تحت رقابت: پیامدهای محدودیت سرمایه تأمین کننده و رقابت همزمان زنجیره تأمین-2021
This paper investigates a manufacturer’s strategic sourcing and supplier financing strategies under downstream horizontal competition and co-opetition. When the manufacturer and the rival engage in a simultaneous-move game, we show that the manufacturer should always exclusively source from and offer finance to a cost-advantageous supplier if the latter is severely capital- constrained. If the supplier is moderately capital-constrained, however, the manufacturer’s preferred sourcing strategy depends on the type of the backup supplier, which leads to a horizontal competition or co-opetition structure. We also examine the robustness of the results by studying the sequential-move game.
Keywords: Supply chain finance | Financing supplier | Dual sourcing | Co-opetition
Analysis of cold-chain service outsourcing modes in a fresh agri-product supply chain
تجزیه و تحلیل حالت های برون سپاری خدمات زنجیره سرد در یک زنجیره تأمین محصول جدید محصولات کشاورزی-2021
Motivated by the wide utilization of cold-chain service outsourcing, this paper examines the effect of outsourcing mode on decisions and profits by developing game-theoretic models for a fresh agri-product supply chain consisting of one supplier, one retailer, and one third-party logistics provider. There are two service outsourcing modes: supplier-outsourcing and retailer- outsourcing. Supplier (retailer)-outsourcing represents that the supplier (retailer) outsources cold-chain service to the logistics provider. When the supplier is the leader, we find that: (i) under traditional quantity discount scheme, the retailer prefers retailer-outsourcing if both service cost and market size are low, or service cost is high. Otherwise, supplier-outsourcing is better if service cost is low and market size is high. How the supplier prefers outsourcing mode is similar to the retailer. Therefore, there may exist an outsourcing mode preferred by both the supplier and the retailer. (ii) Retailer-outsourcing is more profitable to the logistics provider than supplier- outsourcing. (iii) Service level-dependent quantity discount is an important factor determining which outsourcing mode is beneficial to the retailer and the logistics provider. Further, we consider an alternative case in which the retailer is the leader, and we uncover the conditions under which an outsourcing mode outperforms the other. Comparing the two cases, we find that the decision sequence between the supplier and the retailer is important for which outsourcing mode is beneficial to supply chain members.
Keywords: Supply chain management | Cold-chain service | Outsourcing mode | Third-party logistics | Game theory
Effects of demand uncertainty reduction on the selection of financing approach in a capital-constrained supply chain
اثرات کاهش عدم قطعیت تقاضا در انتخاب رویکرد تأمین مالی در یک زنجیره تأمین محدود سرمایه-2021
This study investigates how demand uncertainty reduction (DUR) affects the decisional dynamics within a supply chain, which comprises a supplier and a capital-constrained retailer, who chooses between bank credit and trade credit financing. A comprehensive scenario analysis suggests the retailer should accept trade credit when DUR is high, trade credit risk premium is moderate, and wholesale price is exogenous and low. However, the retailer should adopt trade credit only when both DUR and production cost are not high, and wholesale price is set endogenously. We further relax the assumption on the bank’s risk attitude and find most results still hold.
Keywords: Capital constraint | Demand uncertainty reduction (DUR) | Game theory | Financing approach | Supply chain finance
COVID-19 pandemic related supply chain studies: A systematic review
مطالعات زنجیره تامین مرتبط با همه گیری COVID-19 : مرور سیستماتیک-2021
The global spread of the novel coronavirus, also known as the COVID-19 pandemic, has had a devastating impact on supply chains. Since the pandemic started, scholars have been researching and publishing their studies on the various supply-chain-related issues raised by COVID-19. However, while the number of articles on this subject has been steadily increasing, due to the absence of any systematic literature reviews, it remains unclear what aspects of this disruption have already been studied and what aspects still need to be investigated. The present study systematically reviews existing research on the COVID-19 pandemic in supply chain disciplines. Through a rigorous and systematic search, we identify 74 relevant articles published on or before 28 September 2020. The synthesis of the findings reveals that four broad themes recur in the published work: namely, impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, resilience strategies for managing impacts and recovery, the role of technology in implementing resilience strategies, and supply chain sustainability in the light of the pandemic. Alongside the synthesis of the findings, this study describes the methodologies, context, and theories used in each piece of research. Our analysis reveals that there is a lack of empirically designed and theoretically grounded studies in this area; hence, the generalizability of the findings, thus far, is limited. Moreover, the analysis reveals that most studies have focused on supply chains for high-demand essential goods and healthcare products, while low-demand items and SMEs have been largely ignored. We also re- view the literature on prior epidemic outbreaks and other disruptions in supply chain disciplines. By considering the findings of these articles alongside research on the COVID-19 pandemic, this study offers research questions and directions for further investigation. These directions can guide scholars in designing and conducting impactful research in the field.
Keywords: Supply chain disciplines | COVID-19 pandemic | Supply chain disruptions | Epidemic outbreaks | Literature review
Sustainable supply chain management considering technology investments and government intervention
مدیریت پایدار زنجیره تأمین با در نظر گرفتن سرمایه گذاری های فن آوری و مداخلات دولت-2021
With the aggravation of the global environmental crisis, consumers are keen to use green products, and enterprises are more committed to technology investment and innovation to meet consumers’ green preferences. This study considers a supply chain system composed of one manufacturer and one retailer, where the manufacturer invests in green emission reduction technology (GERT) to reduce carbon emissions, and the retailer invests in information disclosure technology to transmit the higher greenness quality of products to consumers. We discuss the technology investment decisions and cooperation strategies between the manufacturer and the retailer, as well as the impacts of government regulations on supply chain members’ decisions. We consider three scenarios: decentralized, government intervention, and cost sharing and government intervention. We derive the optimal technology investment decisions of the manufacturer and retailer. In addition, we identify the conditions for the manufacturer to subsidize the retailer’s disclosure technology costs. The results show that a higher emission reduction subsidy encourages GERT investments and increases supply chain members’ profits. However, when the government sets a higher emission reduction standard, the subsidy neither increases the emission reduction nor benefits the retailer, and hurts the manufacturer’s profit. We also demonstrate that when there is cost sharing and government intervention, emission reduction and supply chain performance are always better than in the other scenarios.
Keywords: Emission reduction | Information disclosure | Technology investments | Government intervention | Sustainable supply chain management
Reframing supply chain finance in an era of reglobalization: On the value of multi-sided crowdfunding platforms
تغییر شکل مالی زنجیره تأمین در دوره جهانی سازی: در مورد ارزش سیستم عامل های سرمایه گذاری چند جانبه-2021
This paper investigates the moderating role of a host government that promotes a multi-sided platform (MSP) as an alternative supply chain finance (SCF) solution. The MSP comprises eq- uity crowdfunding, fixed-income funds, and low-rate lending facilities. We examine the sequential interactions between the host government (as the dominant legislator), a crowd of risk-averse small investors, and two competing SCs (local and foreign) that are engaged in Cournot competition. The players’ equilibrium strategies are characterized under two platform power structures, namely small investors-led and SC-led. The joint impact of government legislation and platform’s configuration on the performance of the proposed SCF mechanism is investigated. Results reveal that, while the regulated MSP outperforms a deregulated scenario, the profit- seeking behavior of the host government may intensify the power struggle between the local SC and small investors, and restrict the platform’s overall performance. To successfully practice smart protectionism, policy makers are urged to reframe existing SCF schemes by leveraging their moderating influence and prioritizing social welfare over their short-term economic goals. This not only abates the power imbalance in MSPs, but also enhances the players’ participation and enables host governments to further support their digital platform economy in the era of reglobalization.
Keywords: Supply chain finance | Multi-sided platform | Equity crowdfunding | Digital platform economy | Platform power | Reglobalization
Sustainable supply chain management for perishable products in emerging markets: An integrated location-inventory-routing model
مدیریت پایدار زنجیره تأمین برای محصولات فاسدشدنی در بازارهای نوظهور: یک مدل مسیریابی-موجودی-مکانیابی یکپارچه-2021
The demand for perishable products in emerging markets has been increasing. However, the perishability of products brings tremendous challenges for firms to build a sustainable supply chain. In this paper, we propose an integrated model of location-inventory-routing for perishable products, considering the factors of carbon emissions and product freshness. First, the economic cost, carbon emission levels, and freshness of the perishable products are analyzed. Second, with the goals of achieving the lowest economic cost and carbon emissions and the highest product freshness, a multi-objective planning model is developed, and constraints are established based on the actual location-inventory-routing situation. Third, the YALMIP toolbox is used to solve the model, and the optimal solution to this complex multi-objective problem is obtained. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method are verified by the case study, as well as the sensitivity vehicle speed to the results. It is found that the integrated model proposed in this paper is able to significantly improve the efficiency of perishable goods supply chain management from the perspective of global optimization, and vehicle speed is able to significantly affect economic costs and carbon emissions.
Keywords: Emerging market | Sustainable operations | Perishable product supply chain | Location-inventory-routing integration | Carbon emissions
To introduce a store brand or not: Roles of market information in supply chains
معرفی یک نام تجاری فروشگاهی یا نه: نقش اطلاعات بازار در زنجیره های تأمین-2021
Retailers in multiple market segments have opposing business practices regarding whether to introduce a store brand. Assuming that manufacturers and retailers have symmetric knowledge on market information, prior literature has shown that retailers have incentive to introduce a store brand in cases in which the store brand intensively competes with the national brand. Information asymmetry, however, is prevalent in supply chains. In the era of big data, the latest advances in technology intensify information asymmetry by allowing retailers to access market information with improved accuracy. To address such information asymmetry, some retailers share information with manufacturers, while others do not. The gap between prior studies and current industrial practices motivates us to explore the roles of market information in supply chains regarding store brand
Keywords: Store brand | National brand | Market information | Information accuracy | Information sharing
Distribution channel and licensing strategy choice considering consumer online reviews in a closed-loop supply chain
کانال توزیع و انتخاب استراتژی صدور مجوز با در نظر گرفتن بررسی های آنلاین مصرف کنندگان در یک زنجیره تامین حلقه بسته-2021
This research builds two-period game models to address the choice issues of the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)’s licensing strategy and the Independent Remanufacturer (IR)’s distribution channel, considering consumer online reviews in a closed-loop supply chain. In both periods, the OEM sells new products by the direct distribution channel. In period 2, the OEM determines the licensing strategy (the fixed or royalty fee) to authourize the IR to remanufacture, and then the IR chooses the distribution channel (direct or indirect) for remanufactured products. Interestingly, our results show that the IR prefers the direct channel when the remanufacturing cost is smaller. And the obtained willingness-to-pay (WTP) from consumer online reviews has a positive impact on the threshold value of the remanufacturing cost. Moreover, we find that the OEM’s licensing strategy choice depends on the sizes of the fixed licensing fee and the obtained WTP. The OEM will choose the royalty licensing strategy to the IR who has chosen the direct channel, when the fixed fee and the obtained WTP are smaller. Finally, we find the optimal royalty fee, numerically examine the impact of the interaction among these factors on consumer surplus and social welfare, and relax the basic assumption to show the robustness of our model.
Keywords: Remanufacturing | Distribution Channel | Licensing strategy | Consumer online reviews |Pricing