Investigation and assessment of blockchain technology adoption in the pharmaceutical supply chain
بررسی و ارزیابی پذیرش فناوری بلاکچین در زنجیره تأمین دارویی-2021
The global pharmaceutical industry has gone through several changes in the past decade related to the adoption of new technologies. The challenges that are faced by this industry mostly involve counterfeit drugs and operational issues. The involvement of cold chain for vaccines, medicine etc. is also impacting the secure logistics and transportation. Newly introduce blockchain technologies have capabilities to address these issues. The challenge which needs to address is the requirement of tracking the product authenticity from start production to consumption point to prevent further financial losses. The present study has proposed the investigation and assessment of blockchain for integration in the supply chain model of the pharmaceutical to securely record transactions between parties enhancing trust and transparency. The blockchain adaptation and implementation to address the supply chain challenges are discussed.© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the International Confer- ence on Technological Advancements in Materials Science and Manufacturing.
Keywords: Pharmaceutical supply chain | Blockchain technology | Decentralised system | Conceptual model | Assessment model
Mapping foodborne pathogen contamination throughout the conventional and alternative poultry supply chains
نقشه برداری از آلودگی پاتوژن ناشی از مواد غذایی در سراسر زنجیره های تأمین مرغ های متداول و جایگزین-2021
Recently, there has been a consumer push for natural and organic food products. This has caused alternative poultry production, such as organic, pasture, and free-range systems, to grow in popularity. Due to the stricter rearing practices of alternative poultry production systems, different types of levels of microbiological risks might be present for these systems when compared to conventional production systems. Both conventional and alternative production systems have complex supply chains that present many different opportunities for flocks of birds or poultry meat to be contaminated with foodborne pathogens. As such, it is important to understand the risks involved during each step of production. The purpose of this review is to detail the potential routes of foodborne pathogen transmission throughout the conventional and alternative supply chains, with a special emphasis on the differences in risk between the two management systems, and to identify gaps in knowledge that could assist, if addressed, in poultry risk-based decision making.
Key words: broilers | alternative broiler production | Salmonella | Campylobacter | organic
Clustering of Indian districts based on supply chain requirements
خوشه بندی مناطق هند براساس نیازهای زنجیره تامین-2021
Facility location problems refer to the selection and placement of a facility to best meet the intended requirements. The problem often consists of fixing manufacturing premises, process industry or office location that minimises the total weighted distances between the data points and the selected centre. The weights may be the constraints or preferences among the data points. The solution should comply with the stated or implied constraints and maximise the profit. Distance is one of the important con- straints that have a direct impact on supply chain costs. This paper considers the 661 districts of India (2011 census) as the data points and finds the centres by clustering the districts into the predefined number of clusters. These centres and number of districts attached to each centre vary depends on the supply chain requirements. We can assume that the main customers are located at the district headquarters and products are to be transmitted from the centres with minimum time and cost to these points. Different algorithms are used for fixing a facility; based on the population, based on the distance and so on. It is assumed that the districts’ headquarters represent the entire districts. Geodetic coordinates are collected for these 661 districts and Haversine formulae are used for converting them into earth-centric earth fixed (ECEF) × x,y and z coordinates. Using these coordinates, the popular Weiszfeld’s algorithm is used in addition to four other implementations to solve and find the clusters and total distance among the dis- tricts in each cluster. All algorithms are coded in MATLAB 2012a and run in an i5 PC with 4 GB RAM.© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Selection and Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the International Mechan- ical Engineering Congress 2019: Materials Science.
Keywords: Facility Location | Clustering | Fermat-Weber Problem | Weiszfeld’s Algorithm
Dynamic decision and coordination in a low-carbon supply chain considering the retailers social preference
تصمیم و هماهنگی پویا در یک زنجیره تامین کم کربن با توجه به اولویت اجتماعی خرده فروش-2021
We establish dynamic game models in a low-carbon supply chain consisting of a single manufacturer and a single retailer with social preference. This study investigates the complex dynamic characteristics of pricing decision and carbon abatement strategy in the supply chain and focuses on the impact of the retailer’s social preference on pricing decision, carbon emission abatement strategy, profits, supply chain coordination, and complexity of dynamic models. We find that adjustment parameters of pricing and carbon emission abatement should be maintained in a certain range; otherwise, the system will be unstable and even chaotic through period double bifurcation or wave shape chaos. A higher social preference of the retailer is always beneficial to carbon abatement and the manufacturer and helps maintain the stability of the supply chain system. However, the impact on the long-term profitability of the supply chain is related to the state of the system. Compared with the setting of a centralized decision, the optimal carbon abatement strategy and supply chain profit in a decentralized decision are always less than those in a centralized setting, regardless of whether the retailer has social preference. Therefore, a side-payment self-executing contract is designed to coordinate the supply chain and achieve Pareto improvement. The coordination mechanism proposed in this study not only leads to Pareto improvement but also increases the stability of the supply chain system. Finally, this study enlightens management in operating a low-carbon supply chain.
Keywords: Social preference | Low-carbon supply chain | Chaos | Coordination mechanism
A framework based on BWM for big data analytics (BDA) barriers in manufacturing supply chains
چارچوبی مبتنی بر BWM برای موانع تجزیه و تحلیل داده های بزرگ (BDA) در تولید زنجیره های تأمین-2021
Due to its potential utility, Big Data (BD) recently attracted researchers and practitioners in decision- making. Big Data analytics (BDA) becomes more common among manufacturing companies because it lets them gain insight and make decisions based on BD. Given the importance of both BD and BDA, this study aims to identify and analyse essential BDA adoption barriers in supply chains. This study explores the current knowledge base using a BWM (Best Worst Method) to discuss these barriers. Data were obtained from five Indian manufacturing companies. Research findings show that data-related barriers are most significant. The findings will help managers understand the exact nature of the challenges and possible advantages of the BDA and implement BDA policies for the growth and output of supply chain operations.© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 3rd International e-Con- ference on Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering and nano Technology.
Keywords: Big data analytics | Barriers | Manufacturing supply chains | Best worst method (BWM)
Disruption in food supply chain and undernourishment challenges: An empirical study in the context of Asian countries
اختلال در زنجیره تأمین مواد غذایی و چالش های کم غذایی: یک مطالعه تجربی در زمینه کشورهای آسیایی-2021
Undernourishment and associated health issues are some mammoth challenges that the world currently faces. The poorly design food supply chain (FSC) is considered a root cause of high undernourishment cases worldwide. Since all processes and stages in a supply chain are strongly connected, a slight delay or glitch can trigger a butterfly effect resulting in significant socio-economic losses. The FSC is vital to providing human essentials and a source of bread earning; rank at the top in global industries and any disturbance results in high unemployment and leading social evils like crime and violence in society. Recognize the same; this study examines the impact of food supply chain disruption on undernourished cases in selected Asian countries. Using Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) estimator, this study provides two key findings. First, a higher intensity of COVID-19 cases translates into higher undernourishment due to direct and indirect effects from higher stringency measures. Secondly, government financial allocations to combat COVID-19 and economic growth significantly mitigate the prevalence of undernourishment. Interestingly, a higher crime index is linked with higher undernourished cases supporting the proposition of socio-economic disorder. These results propose broad policy implications for governments, food regulatory authority, donor agencies, and Non-Governmental Organizations by strengthening the food supply chain and thus reduces undernourishment cases.
Keywords: Food supply chain | COVID-19 | Unemployment | Undernourishment | Economic growth | Asian countries
Application of green supply chain management in the oil Industries: Modeling and performance analysis
کاربرد مدیریت زنجیره تامین سبز در صنایع نفت: مدل سازی و تحلیل عملکرد-2021
Environmental concerns relating to production affairs have made various organizations use green practices in different processes of supply chain, because the green supply chain management (GSCM) is considered as an important organizational philosophy to decrease environmental risks and as a preventive approach in order to increase environmental performance and achievement of competitive advantages for organizations. The purpose of the present article is to design an interactive model for the practices of GSCM and its application to clustering oil industries for analyzing their green performance. Therefore, the literature was studied and a total of fifteen practices were obtained using experts’ opinions in academic and oil industry professionals. In next, the fuzzy interpretative structural modeling (FISM) approach was utilized so as to determine the relationship between the practices through considering the linguistic ambiguities of judgments and designing the structural model. The existing relationships within the structural model were studied and tested by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). After that, the relative importance of each practice was calculated by applying fuzzy analysis network process (FANP). In the next, the oil industries were categorized in two clusters using the K-means algorithm aggregated to the particle swarm optimization algorithm. Results of the present study showed that ‘‘legal requirements and regulations”, ‘‘intra-organizational environmental management”, ‘‘green design” and ‘‘green technology” are of root and influential practices with relatively more importance than others; in addition, it was cleared that the first cluster industries have high performance whereas the second ones have medium performance from the viewpoint of considering the practices of GSCM. Finally, the discriminant function designed to forecasting environment performance of the oil industries and member- ship to clusters for each of them.© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the Web International Conference on Accelerating Innovations in Material Science – 2020.
Keywords: Green Supply Chain Management | Oil industries | Fuzzy interpretative structural modeling | Kmeans | Particle swarm optimization | Clustering | Discriminant analysis
Shared warehouse as an inter-supply chain cooperation strategy to reduce the time-dependent deterioration costs
انبار مشترک به عنوان یک استراتژی همکاری بین زنجیره تامین برای کاهش هزینه های زوال وابسته به زمان-2021
Deterioration is one of the main concerns of many food and drug products. To reduce the effects of this phenomenon, various strategies have been proposed so far. In this paper, the collaboration of distributors in two different supply chains using a shared warehouse and its impacts on the deterioration of products which is time- dependent are investigated. Moreover, innovative algorithms are proposed to extract the solution of the models in the non-integrated and integrated supply chains. Next, the cooperative game theory is used to share the benefits of the cooperation between distributors. The numerical results of the paper indicate the efficiency of the proposed strategy in reducing the cost and deterioration of the supply chains. Furthermore, to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed model in different real-world problems, four possible categories of the deterioration rate are scrutinized. The results of this investigation denote that the strategy has high effectiveness in all categories while in the category that the deterioration rate is a linear function of the time, the saving in the deterioration cost using the strategy is greatest. Also, conducting a sensitivity analysis, it is revealed that the greater the difference in the ordering cost of distributors, the greater the effectiveness of the strategy in reducing supply chain costs.
Keywords: Time-sensitive deterioration | Inter-supply chain cooperation | Shared distribution warehouse | Cooperative game theory
Development of a closed-loop supply chain system with exponential demand and multivariate production/remanufacturing rates for deteriorated products
توسعه یک سیستم زنجیره تامین حلقه بسته با تقاضای نمایی و نرخ تولید / بازآفرینی چند متغیره برای محصولات خراب-2021
This article introduces a Closed-Loop Supply Chain Model for Deteriorated Goods. The model is generated for an exponentially growing demand rate based on time and multivariate output and remanufacturing rates. Based on demand and the amount of inventory, we consider the production and remanufacturing rates. The end user receives buyback items and the rate of return is perceived to be linearly time depen- dent. In order to investigate optimized solution for the prescribed model, it has been formulated mathematically. Finally, to illustrate the case, a numerical analysis and sensitivity analysis would be provided.© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the International Confer- ence on Materials and System Engineering.
Keywords: EPQ model | Reverse logistics | Deterioration | Optimality
Digitalization of the healthcare supply chain: A roadmap to generate benefits and effectively support healthcare delivery
دیجیتالی شدن زنجیره تأمین مراقبت های بهداشتی: نقشه راهی برای ایجاد مزایا و حمایت موثر از ارائه خدمات بهداشتی و درمانی-2021
The healthcare supply chain lags far behind supply chains in other industries in terms of performance and the deployment of best practices. Managers could bridge this gap and improve the performance of the healthcare supply chain by implementing digitalization initiatives. However, the erratic, disconnected digitalization of practices already deployed in the healthcare sector makes it difficult to maximize the potential of these initiatives. In order to generate the greatest benefits from digitalization while improving healthcare delivery, this article sets out a roadmap for implementing technologies. Unlike previous studies that focused on the entire supply chain or had been limited to patient flow, this study adopts the perspective of the hospital as a central launching point for digitalization initiatives. The roadmap, which involves both internal and external digitalization trajectories, is based on a research methodology that combines observations with an umbrella review of literature. This methodology enables us to capture the research challenges associated with the healthcare supply chain and show how digitalization initiatives can address them. The digitalization proposals put forward are structured in terms of priority and centered on hospitals. These proposals can help managers make improvements to the supply chain and also clinical flows.
Keywords: Supply chain | Digital supply chain | Logistics | Healthcare delivery | Benefits | Technology